(1.) Heb nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2Ch 28:7; comp. 1Ki 4:6), chief of the temple (1Ch 9:11; Jer 20:1), the leader of the Aaronites (1Ch 12:27), keeper of the sacred treasury (1Ch 26:24), captain of the army ([1ch 13:1|), the king (1Sa 9:16), the Messiah (Da 9:25).
(7.) Heb sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Ge 40:16); of the chief butler (Ge 40:2, etc. See also Ge 47:6; Ex 1:11; Da 1:7; Jg 10:18; 1Ki 22:26; 20:15; 2Ki 1:9; 2Sa 24:2). It is used also of angels, guardian angels (Da 10:13,20-21; 12:1; 10:13; 8:25).
(8.) Pehah, whence pasha, i.e., friend of the king; adjutant; governor of a province (2Ki 18:24; Isa 36:9; Jer 51:1; 52:34; 23/6'>Eze 23:6,23; Da 3:2; Es 3:12), or a perfect (Ne 3:7; 5:14; Ezr 5:3; Hag 1:1). This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the Hebrew idiom (1Ki 10:15).
(9.) The Chaldean word segan is applied to the governors of the Babylonian satrapies (Da 3:2,27; 6:7); the prefects over the Magi (Da 2:48). The corresponding Hebrew word segan is used of provincial rulers (Jer 51:23,28,57); also of chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem (Ezr 9:2; Ne 2:16; 4:14,19; 5:7,17; 7:5; 12:40).
In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered thus.
(1.) Meaning an ethnarch (2Co 11:32), which was an office distinct from military command, with considerable latitude of application.
(2.) The procurator of Judea under the Romans (Mt 27:2). (Comp. Lu 2:2, where the verb from which the Greek word so rendered is derived is used.)
(3.) Steward (Ga 4:2).
(4.) Governor of the feast (Joh 2:9), who appears here to have been merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have presided at the marriage banquet in his stead.
(5.) A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, (Jas 3:4).
This word represents various Heb. and Gr. words, technical and non-technical. In Ge 42:6 (Joseph, cf. 41:40) it is probably the Ta-te, the second after the king in the court of the palace; cf. 1Ki 18:3; Da 2:48 for similar offices. It frequently represents an Assyrian word, pechah, used of Persian satraps in general (Es 3:12; 8:8), and of Assyrian generals (2Ki 18:24, cf. 1Ki 20:24). It is applied particularly to Tattenai, the governor of the large Persian province of which Jud
There are ten Hebrew words thus translated, signifying any ruler, captain, viceroy, etc., that was set over the people. The term is also so used in the N.T. except the following:
1. ???????? 'governor of a nation,' an ethnarch, as the ruler of Damascus was called. 2Co 11:32.
2. ???????, 'one who directs, guides,' used of the 'steersman of a ship.' Jas 3:4.
3. ??????, the procurator of Judaea. Mt 27:2; Lu 20:20, etc.
4. ?????????, 'manager of a house, steward.' Ga 4:2.
In the Authorized Version this one English word is the representative of no less than ten Hebrew and four Greek words.
1. The chief of a tribe or family.
2. A ruler in his capacity of lawgiver and dispenser of justice.
3. A ruler consider especially as having power over the property and persons of his subjects.
The "governors of the people," in
appear to have been the king's body-guard; cf.
4. A prominent personage, whatever his capacity. It is applied to a king as the military and civil chief of his people,
to the general of an army,
and to the head of a tribe.
It denotes an officer of high rank in the palace, the lord high chamberlain.
It is applied in
to the petty chieftains who were tributary to Solomon,
to the military commander of the Syrians,
and the Medes.
Under the Persian viceroys, during the Babylonian captivity, the land of the Hebrews appears to have been portioned out among "governors" (pachoth) inferior in rank to the satraps,
like the other provinces which were under the dominion of the Persian king.
It is impossible to determine the precise limits of their authority or the functions which they had to perform. It appears from
that these governors were intrusted with the collection of the king's taxes; and from
that they were supported by a contribution levied upon the people, which was technically termed "the bread of the governor" comp.
They were probably assisted in discharging their official duties by A council.
The "governor" beyond the river had a judgment-seat beyond Jerusalem, from which probably he administered justice when making a progress through his province.
At the time of Christ Judea was a Roman province, governed by a procurator (governor) appointed by Rome.
GOVERNOR. Judea having been reduced into a province by the Romans, they sent governors thither, who were subject not only to the emperors, but also to the governors of Syria, whereof Judea made a part.