Reference: Samuel, Books Of
The LXX. translators regarded the books of Samuel and of Kings as forming one continuous history, which they divided into four books, which they called "Books of the Kingdom." The Vulgate version followed this division, but styled them "Books of the Kings." These books of Samuel they accordingly called the "First" and "Second" Books of Kings, and not, as in the modern Protestant versions, the "First" and "Second" Books of Samuel.
The authors of the books of Samuel were probably Samuel, Gad, and Nathan. Samuel penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first book. Gad, the companion of David (1Sa 22:5), continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan completed it, probably arranging the whole in the form in which we now have it (1Ch 29:29).
The contents of the books. The first book comprises a period of about a hundred years, and nearly coincides with the life of Samuel. It contains (1) the history of Eli (1-4); (2) the history of Samuel (5-12); (3) the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31). The second book, comprising a period of perhaps fifty years, contains a history of the reign of David (1) over Judah (1-4), and (2) over all Israel (5-24), mainly in its political aspects. The last four chapters of Second Samuel may be regarded as a sort of appendix recording various events, but not chronologically. These books do not contain complete histories. Frequent gaps are met with in the record, because their object is to present a history of the kingdom of God in its gradual development, and not of the events of the reigns of the successive rulers. It is noticeable that the section (2SA 11:2-12: 29) containing an account of David's sin in the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1Ch 20.
The prophet Gad told David, "Don't remain in the stronghold. Go and enter the territory of Judah." So David left and went into the forest of Hereth.
Late one afternoon about dusk, David got up from his couch and was walking around on the roof of the royal palace. From there he watched a woman taking a bath, and she was very beautiful to look at. David sent word to inquire about her, and someone told him, "This is Eliam's daughter Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite, isn't it?" read more. So David sent some messengers, took her from her home, and she went to him, and he had sex with her. (She had been consecrating herself following her menstrual separation.) Then she returned to her home. The woman conceived, and she sent this message to David: "I'm pregnant." So David summoned Joab, and told him, "Send me Uriah the Hittite." So Joab sent Uriah to David. When Uriah arrived, David inquired about how Joab was doing, how the army was doing, and how the war was progressing. Then David told Uriah, "Go on down to your house and relax a while." So Uriah left the king's palace, and the king sent a gift along after him. But Uriah spent the night sleeping in the alcove of the king's palace in the company of all his master's staff members. He refused to go down to his own home. When David was told that Uriah hadn't gone home the previous night, he quizzed him, "You just arrived from a long journey, so why didn't you go down to your own house?" Uriah replied, "The ark, along with Israel and Judah, are encamped in tents, while my commanding officer Joab and my master's staff members are camping out in the open fields. Should I go home, eat, drink, and have sex with my wife? Not on your life! I won't do something like this, will I?" Then David invited Uriah, "Stay here today, and tomorrow I'll send you back." So Uriah remained in Jerusalem all that day and the next.
Meanwhile, what David had done grieved the LORD, so the LORD sent Nathan to David.
SAMUEL, BOOKS OF
A certain man lived in Ramathaim-zophim, which is in the hill country of Ephraim. He was Jeroham's son Elkanah, the grandson of Elihu and grandson of Tohu, who was the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite.
A certain man lived in Ramathaim-zophim, which is in the hill country of Ephraim. He was Jeroham's son Elkanah, the grandson of Elihu and grandson of Tohu, who was the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite. He had two wives; the name of one was Hannah and the name of the other was Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children. read more. That man would go up from his town each year to worship and sacrifice to the LORD of the Heavenly Armies at Shiloh, where Eli's two sons Hophni and Phineas served as priests of the LORD. On the day when Elkanah offered sacrifices, he would give portions to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters, but he would give twice as much to Hannah because he loved her. Now the LORD had closed her womb. Her rival would provoke her severely so that she complained loudly because the LORD had closed her womb. Elkanah would do this year after year, as often as Hannah went up to the house of the LORD. Likewise, Peninnah would provoke her, and Hannah would cry and would not eat. Elkanah her husband told her, "Hannah, why are you crying and why don't you eat? Why are you upset? Am I not better to you than ten sons?" Hannah got up after she had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the chair by the doorpost of the tent of the LORD. Deeply distressed, she prayed to the LORD and wept bitterly. Hannah made a vow: "LORD of the Heavenly Armies, if you just look at the misery of your maid servant, remember me, and don't forget your maid servant. If you give your maid servant a son, then I'll give him to the LORD for all the days of his life, and a razor is never to touch his head." As she continued to pray in the LORD's presence, Eli was watching her mouth. Hannah was praying inwardly. Her lips were quivering, and her voice could not be heard. So Eli thought she was drunk. Eli told her, "How long will you stay drunk? Put away your wine!" "No, sir!" Hannah replied. "I'm a deeply troubled woman. I've drunk neither wine nor beer. I've been pouring out my soul in the LORD's presence. Don't consider your maid servant a worthless woman. Rather, all this time I've been speaking because I'm very anxious and distressed." "Go in peace," Eli answered. "May the God of Israel grant the request you have asked of him." She said, "Let your servant find favor in your eyes." Then she went on her way and ate, and her face was no longer sad. They got up early the next morning and worshipped in the LORD's presence, and then they returned and came to their house at Ramah. Elkanah had marital relations with his wife Hannah, and the LORD remembered her. By the time of the next year's sacrifice, Hannah had become pregnant and had borne a son. She named him Samuel because she said, "I asked the LORD for him." Then Elkanah went up with all his family to offer the yearly sacrifice to the LORD and pay his vow. Hannah did not go up because she had told her husband, "As soon as the child is weaned, I'll take him to appear in the LORD's presence and remain there forever." "Do what you want," Elkanah told her. "Stay until you have weaned him, only may the LORD bring about what you've said." So Hannah stayed and nursed her son until she had weaned him. Then, when she had weaned him, she brought him up with her to Shiloh, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour, and a skin of wine. She brought him to the house of the LORD at Shiloh, and the boy was young. They slaughtered the bull and brought the boy to Eli. Hannah said, "Sir, as surely as you are alive, I'm the woman who stood before you here praying to the LORD. I prayed for this boy, and the LORD granted me the request I asked of him. Now I'm dedicating him to the LORD, and as long as he lives, he will be dedicated to the LORD." Then they worshipped the LORD there.
Then Hannah prayed: "My heart exults in the LORD; my strength is increased by the LORD. I will open my mouth to speak against my enemies, because I rejoice in your deliverance. Indeed, there is no one holy like the LORD, indeed, there is no one besides you, there is no rock like our God. read more. Don't continue to talk proudly, and don't speak arrogantly, for the LORD is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed. The bows of warriors are shattered, but those who stumble are equipped with strength. Those who had an abundance of bread now hire themselves out, and those who were hungry hunger no more. While the barren woman gives birth to seven children, she who had many children languishes. The LORD kills and gives life, he brings people down to where the dead are and he raises them up. The LORD makes people poor and he makes people rich, he brings them low, and he also exalts them. He raises the poor up from the dust, he lifts up the needy from the trash heap to make them sit with princes and inherit a seat of honor. Indeed the pillars of the earth belong to the LORD, and he has set the world on them. He guards the steps of his faithful ones, while the wicked are made silent in darkness. He grants the request of the one who prays. He blesses the year of the righteous. Indeed it's not by strength that a person prevails. The LORD will shatter his enemies those who contend against him. Who is holy? The one who will thunder against them in the heavens. The LORD will judge the ends of the earth, he will give strength to his king, and he will increase the strength of His anointed one." Then Elkanah went to his house at Ramah, while the boy was ministering to the LORD in the presence of Eli the priest. Now the sons of Eli were worthless men who did not know the LORD. The custom of the priests with the people was that whenever a person offered a sacrifice, a servant of the priest would come with a three pronged fork in his hand while the meat was boiling, and he would stick it into the boiler or pot, and take everything the fork brought up that is, the priest would take it for himself. This is what they were supposed to do with all the Israelis who came there to Shiloh. But even before they burned the fat, the servant of the priest would come and say to the person offering the sacrifice, "Give me meat to roast for the priest. He won't accept boiled meat from you, but only raw." If the man told him, "They must surely burn up the fat first, and then take for yourself whatever you desire," the servant would say, "No, give it now, and if you don't, I'll take it by force!" By doing this, the sin of the young men was very serious in the LORD's sight because the men despised the LORD's offering. Now Samuel was ministering in the LORD's presence, as a boy wearing a linen ephod. His mother would make a small robe for him, and she would bring it each year when she went up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice. Then Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife and say, "May the LORD give you descendants from this woman in place of the one she dedicated to the LORD." Then they would return to their home. The LORD took note of Hannah, and she became pregnant and gave birth to three sons and two daughters. Meanwhile, the boy Samuel continued to grow, and the LORD was constantly with him. Now Eli was very old, and he had heard everything that his sons were doing to the Israelis, and how they lay with the women who were serving regularly at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.
Now Eli was very old, and he had heard everything that his sons were doing to the Israelis, and how they lay with the women who were serving regularly at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. "Why are you doing these things that I'm hearing about?" he asked his sons, "These reports about your evil deeds are coming from all these people! read more. No, my sons, I'm not hearing good news being circulated by the LORD's people. If a person sins against another, God will mediate for him, but if a person sins against the LORD, who can intercede for him?" But they would not follow the advice of their father; for the LORD wanted to put them to death. But the boy Samuel continued to grow both physically and in favor with the LORD and the people. A man of God came to Eli, saying to him, "This is what the LORD says: "When they were in Egypt and slaves to the house of Pharaoh, did I not reveal to the family of your ancestor Aaron
A man of God came to Eli, saying to him, "This is what the LORD says: "When they were in Egypt and slaves to the house of Pharaoh, did I not reveal to the family of your ancestor Aaron that I had chosen him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer up burnt offerings on my altar, burn incense, and carry the ephod in my presence? And did I not give to your ancestors' family all the Israeli fire-offerings?
that I had chosen him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer up burnt offerings on my altar, burn incense, and carry the ephod in my presence? And did I not give to your ancestors' family all the Israeli fire-offerings? Why, then, do all of you show contempt for my sacrifice and offering that I've commanded for my dwelling? And you honor your sons more than me in order to fatten yourselves from the best of all the offerings of my people Israel.'
Why, then, do all of you show contempt for my sacrifice and offering that I've commanded for my dwelling? And you honor your sons more than me in order to fatten yourselves from the best of all the offerings of my people Israel.' "Therefore, the LORD God of Israel has declared, "I did, in fact, say that your family and your ancestor's family would walk before me forever,' but now the LORD declares, "Far be it from me! The one who honors me I'll honor, and the one who despises me is to be treated with contempt.
"Therefore, the LORD God of Israel has declared, "I did, in fact, say that your family and your ancestor's family would walk before me forever,' but now the LORD declares, "Far be it from me! The one who honors me I'll honor, and the one who despises me is to be treated with contempt. The time is coming when I'll cut away at your family and your ancestor's family until there are no old men left in your family.
The time is coming when I'll cut away at your family and your ancestor's family until there are no old men left in your family. Distress will settle down to live in your household, and despite all the good that I do for Israel, there will never be an old man in your family forever, and you will never again have an old man in my house.
Distress will settle down to live in your household, and despite all the good that I do for Israel, there will never be an old man in your family forever, and you will never again have an old man in my house. Any of you whom I don't eliminate from serving at my altar will grow tired from weeping, and their souls will grieve. All the increase of your family will die by violence.
Any of you whom I don't eliminate from serving at my altar will grow tired from weeping, and their souls will grieve. All the increase of your family will die by violence. Here's a sign for you your two sons Hophni and Phineas will both die on the same day!
Here's a sign for you your two sons Hophni and Phineas will both die on the same day! And I'll raise up for myself a faithful priest who will do according to what is in my heart and according to my desire. I'll build for him an enduring house and he will walk before my anointed one forever.
And I'll raise up for myself a faithful priest who will do according to what is in my heart and according to my desire. I'll build for him an enduring house and he will walk before my anointed one forever. Anyone who remains in your family will come and prostrate themselves before him for a small wage or a loaf of bread and will say, "Please put me in one of the priest's offices so I can eat a piece of bread."'"
Anyone who remains in your family will come and prostrate themselves before him for a small wage or a loaf of bread and will say, "Please put me in one of the priest's offices so I can eat a piece of bread."'"
Meanwhile the boy Samuel was serving the LORD before Eli. A word from the LORD was rare in those days, and visions were infrequent.
Meanwhile the boy Samuel was serving the LORD before Eli. A word from the LORD was rare in those days, and visions were infrequent. At that time Eli, whose vision was growing dim, was lying down in his bedroom. read more. The lamp of God had not yet been extinguished, and Samuel was lying down in the tent of the LORD where the Ark of God was. The LORD called out to Samuel, who answered, "Here I am." He ran to Eli and said, "Here I am! You called me." "I didn't call you," Eli said. "Go back and lie down." So he went and lay down. Then the LORD again called out, "Samuel!" So Samuel got up, went to Eli, and said, "Here I am! You called me." He said, "I didn't call you, my son. Go back and lie down." Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD and had not yet had the word of the LORD revealed to him. Then the LORD called out to Samuel again a third time, and he got up, went to Eli, and said, "Here I am! You called me." Then Eli understood that the LORD was calling the boy, so Eli told Samuel, "Go lie down, and then if he calls you, answer, "Speak, LORD, because your servant is listening.'" Then Samuel went and lay down. Later, the LORD came and stood there, calling out, "Samuel! Samuel!" as he had before. Samuel said, "Speak, because your servant is listening." "Look," the LORD told Samuel. "I'm about to do something in Israel that will make both ears of anyone who hears it tingle.
"Look," the LORD told Samuel. "I'm about to do something in Israel that will make both ears of anyone who hears it tingle. I'll fulfill every promise that I've spoken concerning Eli's family, from beginning to end. read more. I've told him that I'm about to judge his family forever because of the iniquity that he knew about. His sons committed blasphemy and he did not rebuke them. Therefore I've sworn concerning Eli's family that the iniquity of his family is not to be atoned for by sacrifice or offering forever." Samuel lay down until morning and then opened the doors of the house of the LORD, but he was afraid to report the vision to Eli. Then Eli called Samuel: "Samuel, my son." He said, "Here I am." Eli said, "What did the LORD say to you? Please don't conceal anything from me. May God do this to you and even more if you conceal from me one word of all that he spoke to you." So Samuel told him everything he did not conceal anything from him. Eli said, "He is the LORD. May he do what seems good to him." As Samuel grew, the LORD was with him and did not let any of Samuel's predictions fail. All Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba knew that Samuel was confirmed as the LORD's prophet. The LORD continued to appear at Shiloh, because he revealed himself to Samuel at Shiloh by means of messages from the LORD.
What Samuel had to say was directed to all Israel, and Israel went out to engage the Philistines in battle. The Israelis were camped at Ebenezer, while the Philistines were camped at Aphek. The Philistines deployed their forces to meet Israel, and as the battle spread Israel was defeated by the Philistines, who killed about four thousand men on the battlefield. read more. When the people came to the camp, the elders of Israel said, "Why did the LORD defeat us today when we fought the Philistines? Let's take the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD from Shiloh, so it may go with us and deliver us from the power of our enemies." So the people sent word to Shiloh and took away from there the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD of the Heavenly Armies, who sits above the cherubim. Now the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phineas, were there with the Ark of the Covenant of God. When the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD came into the camp, all Israel gave a great shout and the earth reverberated! When the Philistines heard the noise of the shout, they asked, "What is this noise coming from shouting in the camp of the Hebrews?" Then they realized that the Ark of the LORD had come into the camp, and the Philistines were terrified. "God has come into the camp," they said. "How terrible for us, because nothing like this has ever happened before! How terrible for us! Who will deliver us from the hand of these mighty gods? These are the gods who struck the Egyptians with all kinds of plagues in the desert. Philistines, be strong and be men, or you will become slaves to the Hebrews just as they have been slaves to you! Be men and fight!" The Philistines fought and Israel was defeated; each of them fled to his own tent. It was a very great slaughter, and 30,000 soldiers of Israel died. The Ark of God was captured, and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phineas, died. That very same day, a man who was a descendant of Benjamin ran from the battle line and came to Shiloh, with his garments torn and dirt on his head. When he arrived, Eli was sitting there on a seat beside the road, watching because his heart trembled for the Ark of God. The man went into the town to give the report, and the whole town cried out. Eli heard the sound of the cry and asked, "What is the meaning of this commotion?" Then the man quickly came and told Eli. Now Eli was 98 years old, and his vision had failed.
Now Eli was 98 years old, and his vision had failed. The man told Eli, "I've just come from the battle line, and I escaped from the battle today." He asked, "What happened, my son?" read more. The messenger answered, "Israel fled from the Philistines and the people suffered a great defeat as well. Moreover, your two sons, Hophni and Phineas, are dead, and the Ark of God was captured." When he mentioned the Ark of God, Eli fell off the seat backwards by the side of the gate. His neck was broken and he died, since he was old and heavy. Eli had judged Israel for 40 years.
She said, "Glory has departed from Israel, because the Ark of God has been captured."
The Philistines took the Ark of God and brought it from Ebenezer to Ashdod.
They put the Ark of the LORD, the box, the gold mice, and the images of their tumors on the cart.
The descendants of Levi took down the Ark of the LORD, along with the box that was with it, containing the objects of gold, and they put them on the large stone. The men of Beth-shemesh offered burnt offerings and made sacrifices to the LORD that day.
These are the gold tumors that the Philistines returned as a guilt offering to the LORD: one for Ashdod, one for Gaza, one for Ashkelon, one for Gath, and one for Ekron. The gold mice represented the number of all the Philistine towns belonging to the five lords, both fortified towns and unwalled villages. The large stone, beside which they put the Ark of the LORD, is a witness to this day in the field of Joshua of Beth-shemesh. read more. God struck down the men of Beth-shemesh because they had looked into the Ark of the LORD. He struck down 50,070 men among the people, and the people mourned because the LORD struck down the people with a great slaughter.
The men of Kiriath-jearim came and took the Ark of the LORD. They brought it to the house of Abinadab on the hill, and they consecrated his son Eleazar to care for the Ark of the LORD.
The men of Kiriath-jearim came and took the Ark of the LORD. They brought it to the house of Abinadab on the hill, and they consecrated his son Eleazar to care for the Ark of the LORD. A long time passed it was twenty years from the time the Ark came to reside in Kiriath-jearim, and all the house of Israel mourned because of the LORD.
A long time passed it was twenty years from the time the Ark came to reside in Kiriath-jearim, and all the house of Israel mourned because of the LORD. Then Samuel told the whole house of Israel, "If you're returning to the LORD with all your heart, then remove the foreign gods and the Ashtaroth from among you, direct your hearts back to the LORD, and serve him only. Then he will deliver you from the control of the Philistines." read more. So the Israelis removed the Baals and Ashtaroth, and served the LORD only. Samuel said, "Bring all Israel together at Mizpah, and I'll pray to the LORD on your behalf." So they came together at Mizpah, drew water, and poured it out in the LORD's presence. On that day they fasted there and said, "We have sinned against the LORD." Then Samuel judged the Israelis at Mizpah. When the Philistines heard that the Israelis had gathered at Mizpah, the Philistine lords came up against Israel. When the Israelis heard this, they were afraid of the Philistines. The Israelis told Samuel, "Don't stop crying out to the LORD our God for us that he may deliver us from the hand of the Philistines." Then Samuel took a nursing lamb and offered it as a whole burnt offering to the LORD. Samuel cried out to the LORD on behalf of Israel, and the LORD answered him. While Samuel was sacrificing the burnt offering, the Philistines approached to attack Israel. But that day the LORD thundered against the Philistines and threw them into panic, and they were defeated before Israel. The men of Israel went out from Mizpah, pursued the Philistines, and struck them down as far as a point below Beth-car. Then Samuel took a stone, placed it between Mizpah and Shen and named it Ebenezer. He said, "The LORD has helped us this far." The Philistines were subdued, and they did not continue to enter the territory of Israel.
The LORD told Samuel, "Listen to them, and appoint a king for them." Then Samuel told the men of Israel, "Each of you go to his own town."
The LORD told Samuel, "Listen to them, and appoint a king for them." Then Samuel told the men of Israel, "Each of you go to his own town."
There was a man from Benjamin named Kish, Abiel's son, the grandson of Zeror and great-grandson of Aphiah's son Becorath. A prominent man from Benjamin, he had a son named Saul, who was a choice and handsome young man. There was no one among the Israelis as handsome as he, and he was a head taller than any of the other people.
Saul told the young man, "Look, we could go, but what could we bring the man? The bread is gone from our bags, and there is no present to bring to the man of God. What do we have with us?"
(Previously in Israel, a person would say when he went to inquire of God, "Come on! Let's go to the seer!" because the person known as a prophet today was formerly called a seer.)
"After that you will come to Gibeath-elohim where the Philistine garrison is. As you arrive there at the town, you'll meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a harp, tambourine, flute, and lyre being played in front of them, and they'll be prophesying.
When these signs occur, do whatever you want to do, because the LORD is with you. You are to go down ahead of me to Gilgal, and then I'll come down to offer burnt offerings and to sacrifice peace offerings. You are to wait seven days until I come to you to let you know what you are to do." read more. Now it happened as Saul turned his back to leave Samuel, that God gave him another heart, and all these signs occurred on that day.
Now it happened as Saul turned his back to leave Samuel, that God gave him another heart, and all these signs occurred on that day. When they arrived there at Gibeah, a band of prophets was right there to meet them. The Spirit of God came upon Saul, and he prophesied along with them. read more. When all those who had known Saul previously saw that he was there among the prophets prophesying, the people told one another, "What has happened to Kish's son? Is Saul also among the prophets?" A man from there answered: "Now who is their father?" Therefore it became a proverb, "Is Saul also among the prophets?" When he had finished prophesying, he went to the high place. Saul's uncle told him and to his young man, "Where did you go?" He said, "To look for the donkeys, and when we saw that they couldn't be found, we went to Samuel." Then Saul's uncle said, "Please tell me what Samuel told you." Saul told his uncle, "He actually told us that the donkeys had been found," but he did not tell him about the matter of kingship about which Samuel had spoken.
Saul told his uncle, "He actually told us that the donkeys had been found," but he did not tell him about the matter of kingship about which Samuel had spoken.
Saul also went to his house in Gibeah, and the soldiers whose hearts God had touched went with him. But some troublemakers said, "How can this man deliver us?" They despised him and did not bring him a gift. But Saul remained silent.
He took a yoke of oxen, cut them in pieces, and sent the pieces by messengers through all the territory of Israel: "This is what will be done to the oxen of anyone who does not come out and join Saul and Samuel!" The fear of the LORD fell on the people and they came out as one man. Saul mustered them at Bezek, and there were 300,000 Israelis and 30,000 men of Judah.
The people told Samuel, "Who said, "Will Saul reign over us?' Bring them to us and we will put them to death!" But Saul said, "Let no one be put to death this day, because today the LORD has delivered Israel." read more. Then Samuel told the people, "Come, let's go to Gilgal and reaffirm the kingship there."
Don't turn aside after useless things that cannot profit or deliver because they're useless.
Saul was 30 years old when he began to reign, and he ruled for 42 years over Israel. Saul chose for himself 3,000 men from Israel. There were 2,000 with Saul in Michmash and the hill country of Bethel, while 1,000 were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin. He had sent the rest of the people home. read more. Jonathan attacked the Philistine garrison in Geba, and the Philistines heard about it. Saul blew the trumpet throughout the land: "Listen, Hebrews!" All Israel heard the report, "Saul has attacked the Philistine garrison and Israel has also become repulsive to the Philistines." Then the people were summoned to Saul at Gilgal. The Philistines assembled to fight against Israel with 30,000 chariots, 6,000 horsemen, and people as numerous as the sand on the seashore. And they advanced and camped in Michmash, east of Beth-aven. When the men of Israel saw that they were in distress (for the people were in difficult circumstances), the people hid themselves in caves, in thickets, in crags, in tombs, and in pits. Hebrews went across the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead, but Saul remained in Gilgal, and all the people followed him, trembling.
Hebrews went across the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead, but Saul remained in Gilgal, and all the people followed him, trembling.
Hebrews went across the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead, but Saul remained in Gilgal, and all the people followed him, trembling. Saul waited seven days for the appointment set by Samuel. When Samuel did not arrive at Gilgal, as the people began to scatter from Saul,
Saul waited seven days for the appointment set by Samuel. When Samuel did not arrive at Gilgal, as the people began to scatter from Saul, Saul said, "Bring the burnt offering and the peace offering to me," and he offered the burnt offering.
Saul said, "Bring the burnt offering and the peace offering to me," and he offered the burnt offering. Just as he finished offering the burnt offering, Samuel arrived, and Saul went out to meet and greet him.
Just as he finished offering the burnt offering, Samuel arrived, and Saul went out to meet and greet him. Samuel said, "What have you done?"
Samuel said, "What have you done?" Saul replied, "When? I saw that the people were scattering from me, that you didn't come at the appointed time, and that the Philistines were assembling at Michmash. I thought, "The Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal but I've not sought the favor of the LORD,' so I forced myself to offer the burnt offering."
Saul replied, "When? I saw that the people were scattering from me, that you didn't come at the appointed time, and that the Philistines were assembling at Michmash. I thought, "The Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal but I've not sought the favor of the LORD,' so I forced myself to offer the burnt offering." Then Samuel told Saul, "You have acted foolishly. You haven't obeyed the commandment of the LORD your God, which he commanded you. For then the LORD would have established your kingdom over Israel forever,
Then Samuel told Saul, "You have acted foolishly. You haven't obeyed the commandment of the LORD your God, which he commanded you. For then the LORD would have established your kingdom over Israel forever, but now your kingdom won't be established. The LORD has sought for himself a man after his own heart, and the LORD has appointed him as Commander-in-Chief over his people because you didn't obey that which the LORD commanded you."
but now your kingdom won't be established. The LORD has sought for himself a man after his own heart, and the LORD has appointed him as Commander-in-Chief over his people because you didn't obey that which the LORD commanded you." Then Samuel got up and went from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin. Saul mustered the people present with him, about 600 men.
Then Samuel got up and went from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin. Saul mustered the people present with him, about 600 men.
Then Samuel got up and went from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin. Saul mustered the people present with him, about 600 men. Saul, his son Jonathan, and the people present with them remained in Geba of Benjamin, while the Philistines camped in Michmash. read more. Raiders went out of the Philistine camp in three companies. One company turned in the direction of Ophrah, to the land of Shual, one company turned in the direction of Beth-horon, while the one company turned toward the border that overlooks the valley of Zeboiim toward the desert.
one company turned in the direction of Beth-horon, while the one company turned toward the border that overlooks the valley of Zeboiim toward the desert. No blacksmith could be found in all the land of Israel because the Philistines thought, "This will keep the Hebrews from making swords or spears."
No blacksmith could be found in all the land of Israel because the Philistines thought, "This will keep the Hebrews from making swords or spears." Everyone in Israel would have to go to the Philistines so each person could sharpen his plow, his mattock, his axe, and his sickle.
Everyone in Israel would have to go to the Philistines so each person could sharpen his plow, his mattock, his axe, and his sickle. The charge was one pin for plows, mattocks, three pronged forks, and axes, or for setting the goads.
The charge was one pin for plows, mattocks, three pronged forks, and axes, or for setting the goads. On the day of battle, none of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan were armed with swords or spears, but Saul and his son Jonathan did have them.
On the day of battle, none of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan were armed with swords or spears, but Saul and his son Jonathan did have them.
One day Jonathan told his armor bearer, "Come, let's go over to the Philistine garrison which is on the other side," but he did not tell his father. Saul was sitting on the outskirts of Geba under the pomegranate tree which was at Migron, and with him were about 600 men. read more. Along with him were Ahitub's son Ahijah, Ichabod's brother, who was Phineas' son and a grandson of Eli the priest of the LORD at Shiloh, who was carrying the ephod. The people did not know that Jonathan had gone. Now in the pass through which Jonathan planned to get across to the Philistine garrison, there was a sharp crag on one side and a sharp crag on the other side. The name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other was Seneh. One crag rose on the north opposite Michmash, and the other on the south opposite Geba. Jonathan told his armor bearer, "Come, let's go over to the garrison of these uncircumcised ones. Perhaps the LORD will work for us, since nothing prevents the LORD from delivering, whether by many or by a few." His armor bearer told him, "Do whatever you want. Let's move out! I'm right here with you, as you wish." Jonathan said, "Look, we're going over to the men, and we will show ourselves to them. If they say to us, "Stay there until we come to you,' then we will stay where we are and not go up to them. But if they say, "Come up and fight us,' then we will go up, for the LORD has given them into our hands, and this will be the sign for us." When the two of them showed themselves to the Philistine garrison, the Philistines said, "Look, the Hebrews are coming out of the holes where they have been hiding." The men of the garrison responded to Jonathan and his armor bearer: "Come up and fight us, and we will show you something." Jonathan then told his armor bearer, "Follow me, for the LORD has given them into Israel's control." Jonathan crawled up on his hands and feet, with his armor bearer following him. The Philistines fell before Jonathan, and his armor bearer who was behind him also killed some. In the initial attack, Jonathan and his armor bearer struck down about twenty men in an area of about half an acre of land. There was terror in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. Even the garrison and the raiders were terrified. The earth shook, and there was even greater terror. Saul's sentries in Gibeah of Benjamin watched as the camp was in disarray, going this way and that. Saul told the people who were with him, "Do a roll call and see who has left us." They did a roll call, and Jonathan and his armor bearer were not there. Saul told Ahijah, "Bring the Ark of God here." For at that time the Ark of God was with the Israelis. While Saul was still speaking to the priest, the commotion in the Philistine camp increased more and more, and Saul told the priest, "Remove your hand." Then Saul and all the people who were with him assembled and went into battle. Now the swords of all the Philistines were against each other, and there was very great confusion. The Hebrews who had previously been with the Philistines, who had gone up with them from the surrounding areas to the camp, even they joined Israel and those who were with Saul and Jonathan. All the Israelis who had been hiding in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines were fleeing, and even they pursued the Philistines in the battle. On that day the LORD delivered Israel, and the battle moved past Beth-aven. The men of Israel were hard pressed on that day, and Saul required the army to take an oath: "Cursed is the person who eats food before evening and before I've been avenged of my enemies." So no one tasted food. Later on, all the soldiers entered the woods, and there was honey on the ground. The people came into the woods and there was flowing honey, but no one put his hand to his mouth to eat it because the people were afraid due to the oath. But Jonathan had not heard that his father had required the army to swear an oath, so he stretched out the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it in the honeycomb. He brought it back to his mouth and his eyes brightened. Then one of the people responded: "Your father strictly ordered the army to take an oath. That's why he said, "Cursed is the person who eats food today,' and so the army is exhausted." Jonathan said, "My father has troubled the land. See how my eyes have brightened because I tasted a little of this honey. How much better if the army had eaten freely today of their enemy's spoil that they found, because the slaughter among the Philistines has not been great." That day they struck down the Philistines from Michmash to Aijalon, and the army was very weary. The army grabbed the spoil, took sheep, oxen, and calves, and slaughtered them on the ground, and then the army ate them with the blood. Someone reported this to Saul: "Right now the army is sinning against the LORD by eating meat with the blood." He said, "You have acted treacherously. Roll a large stone to me today." Then Saul said, "Disperse yourselves among the soldiers and say to them, "Let each man bring his ox and his sheep to me, and you are to slaughter them here and eat. But don't sin against the LORD by eating meat with the blood.'" So every soldier brought his ox with him that night, and they slaughtered them there. Saul built an altar to the LORD; it was the first altar that he built to the LORD. Saul said, "Let's go down after the Philistines tonight and plunder them until dawn, and let's not leave a single one of them alive." They said, "Do whatever seems good to you!" But the priest said, "Let's draw near to God here." Saul inquired of God, "Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will you give them into the hand of Israel?" But God did not answer him that day. Saul said, "All you army officers are to come here to find out what constitutes this sin today. Indeed, as the LORD who delivers Israel lives, even if the sin is with my son Jonathan, he will surely die!" Not a single one of the soldiers answered him. Then he told all Israel, "You will be on one side, and I and my son Jonathan will be on the other side." The people told Saul, "Do what seems good to you." Then Saul told the LORD God of Israel, "Judge us properly." Jonathan and Saul were selected, but the army was cleared. Saul said, "Cast lots between me and my son Jonathan," and Jonathan was selected. Saul told Jonathan, "Tell me what you've done." So Jonathan spoke to him: "I did taste a little honey from the end of the staff that was in my hand. Here I am; I'm ready to die!" Saul said, "May God do this to me and even more, if you don't surely die, Jonathan!" Then the army told Saul, "Shall Jonathan die, who brought about this great deliverance in Israel? As the LORD lives, not one hair of his head will fall to the ground, because today he did this with God's help." Then Saul stopped pursuing the Philistines, and the Philistines went back to their territory. When Saul became king over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side against Moab, the Ammonites, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Philistines. Everywhere he turned he was victorious. He acted valiantly, defeated Amalek, and delivered Israel from those who had been plundering them. Saul's sons included Jonathan, Ishvi, and Malchi-shua. Of his two daughters, the firstborn was named Merab, and the younger one was named Michal. Saul's wife was Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz, while the commander of his army was Saul's uncle Ner's son Abner. Saul's father Kish and Abner's father Ner were sons of Abiel. There was intense fighting against the Philistines during Saul's entire reign, and whenever Saul discovered a strong or valiant warrior, he would enlist him for service.
This is what the LORD of the Heavenly Armies says: "I'll punish Amalek for what he did to Israel, when he set himself against Israel in the way, as they were going up from Egypt. Now, go and attack Amalek. Completely destroy all that they have. Don't spare them, but put to death both man and woman, child and infant, both ox and sheep, camel and donkey.'" read more. Saul summoned the people and mustered them in Telaim, 200,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 men from Judah. Saul came to the city of Amalek and set an ambush in the valley. Saul told the Kenites, "Withdraw from the Amalekites so that I don't destroy you with them, for you showed kindness to all the Israelis when they departed from Egypt." So the Kenites withdrew from the Amalekites. Saul attacked the Amalekites from Havilah to Shur, which is east of Egypt. He captured alive Agag king of Amalek, but he completely destroyed all the people, executing them with swords. Saul and the people spared Agag and the best of the sheep and cattle the fattened animals and lambs along with all that was good. They were not willing to completely destroy them, but they did completely destroy everything that was worthless and inferior. This message from the LORD came to Samuel: "I regret that I made Saul king, because he has turned away from following me and has not carried out my commands." Samuel was angry, and he cried out to the LORD all night. Samuel got up early in the morning to meet Saul, but Samuel was told, "Saul went up to Carmel to set up a monument for himself. Then he turned around and traveled on to Gilgal." Samuel approached Saul. "May the LORD bless you," Saul said. "I've carried out the LORD's command." Samuel said, "Then what is this bleating of sheep in my ears and the lowing of cattle that I hear?" Saul replied, "They brought them from the Amalekites. The people spared the best of the sheep and cattle to offer sacrifices to the LORD your God, and the rest they completely destroyed." "Be quiet!" Samuel said. "I'll tell you what the LORD told me last night." Saul told him, "Speak." So Samuel replied, "Is it not true that though you were small in your own eyes you became head of the tribes of Israel, and the LORD anointed you king over Israel? The LORD sent you on a mission: "Go and completely destroy the sinners, the Amalekites, and fight against them until they're destroyed.' Why didn't you obey the LORD, but grabbed the spoil and did evil in the LORD's sight?" Saul told Samuel, "I did obey the LORD. I went on the mission on which the LORD sent me, I brought Agag king of Amalek, and I completely destroyed the Amalekites. The people took some of the spoil sheep, cattle, and the best of what was to be completely destroyed to sacrifice to the LORD your God at Gilgal." Samuel said, "Does the LORD delight as much in burnt offerings and sacrifices as in obeying the LORD? Surely, to obey is better than sacrifice, to pay attention is better than the fat of rams. Indeed, rebellion is the sin of divination, and arrogance is iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected this message from the LORD, he has rejected you from being king." "I've sinned," Saul replied to Samuel. "I've broken the LORD's command and your word, because I was afraid of the people and listened to them. Now, please forgive my sin and return with me so I may worship the LORD." Samuel told Saul, "I won't return with you because you have rejected the message from the LORD, and the LORD has rejected you from being king over Israel." As Samuel turned to go Saul seized him by the corner of his robe, and it tore. Samuel told him, "The LORD has torn the kingdom of Israel away from you today, and he has given it to your neighbor who is better than you. Moreover, the Glory of Israel does not lie or change his mind, for he's not a man that he should change his mind." "I've sinned," Saul said. "But please honor me now before the elders of my people and before Israel, and return with me so I may worship the LORD your God." Samuel returned, following Saul, and Saul worshipped the LORD. Then Samuel said, "Bring Agag king of Amalek to me." Agag came to him in fetters, saying to himself, "Surely the bitterness of death is past."
Then Samuel went to Ramah, and Saul went to his house in Gibeah of Saul.
The LORD told Samuel, "How long will you grieve over Saul, since I've rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and go. I'm sending you to Jesse from Bethlehem because I've chosen for myself one of his sons as king."
The LORD told Samuel, "How long will you grieve over Saul, since I've rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and go. I'm sending you to Jesse from Bethlehem because I've chosen for myself one of his sons as king." Samuel said, "How can I go? Saul will hear about this and kill me!" read more. The LORD said, "Take a heifer with you and say, "I've come to offer a sacrifice to the LORD.' You are to invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I'll show you what you are to do. You are to anoint for me the one I tell you." Samuel did what the LORD said and went to Bethlehem. The elders of the town came out to meet him trembling, and said, "May your coming be in peace." He said, "Peace, I've come to sacrifice to the LORD. Consecrate yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice." Samuel consecrated Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice. When they arrived, Samuel saw Eliab, and said, "Surely he's the LORD's anointed." The LORD told Samuel, "Don't look at his appearance or his height, for I've rejected him. Truly, God does not see what man sees, for man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD sees the heart." Then Jesse summoned Abinadab and brought him before Samuel, and he said, "Neither has the LORD chosen this one." Then Jesse brought Shammah, and he said, "Neither has the LORD chosen this one." Jesse brought seven of his sons before Samuel, and Samuel told Jesse, "The LORD has not chosen these." Then Samuel told Jesse, "Are these all the young men?" He said, "There yet remains the youngest one, and right now he's tending the sheep." Samuel told Jesse, "Send someone to get him, for we won't do anything else until he arrives here." So he sent and brought him. He had a dark, healthy complexion, with beautiful eyes, and he was handsome. The LORD said, "Get up and anoint him, for this is the one." Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed David in the presence of his brothers, and the Spirit of the LORD came on David from that day forward. Then Samuel got up and went to Ramah. The Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him. Saul's servants told him, "Look, an evil spirit from God is troubling you. Let our lord order his servants who attend you to look for a man who is skilled in playing the lyre. And then when an evil spirit from God comes on you, he will play and you will be better." Saul told his servants, "Find a man for me who can play well and bring him to me."
Saul told his servants, "Find a man for me who can play well and bring him to me." One of the young men answered: "Look, I've seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite who is skilled in playing. The man is a valiant soldier, gifted in speech, and handsome. And the LORD is with him." read more. So Saul sent messengers to Jesse and said, "Send me your son David, who is with the sheep." Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread, a container of wine, and one kid, and sent them to Saul along with his son David. David went to Saul and began to serve him. Saul loved him very much, and he became his armor bearer. Saul sent a messenger to Jesse to tell him, "Allow David to serve me, because I'm pleased with him." Whenever an evil spirit from God came to Saul, David would take the lyre and play it. Relief would come to Saul and he would be better, because the evil spirit would leave him.
David was the son of that Ephrathite man named Jesse from Bethlehem in Judah. He had eight sons; at the time when Saul was king he was old, having lived to an advanced age.
When Saul saw David going out to meet the Philistine, he asked Abner, the commander of the army, "Whose son is this young man, Abner?" Abner said, "As surely as you live, your majesty, I don't know."
David went out and was successful everywhere Saul sent him, and Saul put him in charge of the troops. This pleased the entire army, as well as Saul's officials. When David returned from defeating the Philistine, as they were entering the city, women from all the towns of Israel came out to meet King Saul, singing and dancing as they joyously played tambourines and lyres. read more. As the women sang and played, they said, "Saul has struck down his thousands but David his ten thousands." Saul was very angry and he did not like what the women sang. He told himself, "They have attributed tens of thousands to David, but to me they have attributed thousands. What else can he have but the kingdom?" From then on Saul kept his eye on David. The next day, while David was playing the lyre as he had before, the evil spirit from the LORD attacked Saul, and he began to rave inside the house with a spear in his hand. Saul hurled it, thinking, "I'll pin David to the wall." But David escaped from him twice.
Saul's daughter Michal loved David. Saul was informed of this and he liked the idea. Saul told himself, "I'll give her to him and she can be a snare to him and the Philistines will harm him." So Saul told David, "For a second time you can be my son-in-law today."
Saul told himself, "I'll give her to him and she can be a snare to him and the Philistines will harm him." So Saul told David, "For a second time you can be my son-in-law today." Saul commanded his officials, "Speak with David privately and say, "Look, the king delights in you, and all his officials love you. Now become the king's son-in-law.'" read more. Saul's officials delivered this message to David, and he asked, "Is becoming the king's son-in-law an unimportant thing to you? I'm a poor and unimportant man." Saul's officials reported to him: "This is what David said." Saul said, "This is what you are to tell David, "The king desires no bride price except 100 Philistine foreskins to take vengeance on the king's enemies.'" Now Saul thought he would cause David to die at the hand of the Philistines. When his officials delivered this message to David, David decided it would be a good thing to become the king's son-in-law. Before the time was up, David got up, went out with his men, and struck down 200 Philistine men. David brought their foreskins and gave them all to the king so he could become the king's son-in-law. So Saul gave him his daughter Michal as a wife. As Saul continued to observe, he realized that the LORD was with David and that Saul's daughter Michal loved him. Then Saul was even more afraid of David, and Saul was David's enemy from that time on. The Philistine commanders would go out to fight and whenever they did, David was more successful than any of Saul's other leaders. His name was held in high esteem.
Saul told his son Jonathan and all his officials to kill David, but Saul's son Jonathan was very fond of David. So Jonathan told David, "My father Saul is trying to kill you. In the morning be careful and stay hidden in a secret place.
Jonathan spoke to his father Saul favorably about David. "The king shouldn't wrong his servant David because he has not wronged you and because what he has done has been very beneficial for you. He risked his life and struck down the Philistine, and the LORD brought about a spectacular deliverance for all Israel. You saw that and rejoiced, so why would you do wrong and shed innocent blood by killing David without cause?" read more. Saul listened to Jonathan, and swore by the life of the LORD that David would not be killed. Jonathan summoned David and told him all this. Then Jonathan brought David to Saul, and David served him as before.
Jonathan summoned David and told him all this. Then Jonathan brought David to Saul, and David served him as before. The war continued and David went out to fight against the Philistines. He thoroughly defeated them, and they fled before David. read more. The evil spirit from the LORD attacked Saul while he was sitting in his house with his spear in his hand and David was playing the lyre. Saul tried to pin David to the wall with the spear, but he jumped away from Saul and the spear stuck in the wall. That night David escaped and fled. Saul sent messengers to David's house to watch him so they could kill him in the morning. David's wife, Michal, told him, "If you don't escape with your life tonight, tomorrow you'll be put to death." So Michal let David down through the window, and he escaped and fled. Then Michal took the household idol and laid it on the bed with a cover of goat hair placed at its head. Then she covered it with clothes.
Then Michal took the household idol and laid it on the bed with a cover of goat hair placed at its head. Then she covered it with clothes. When Saul sent the messengers to take David, Michal said, "He's sick." read more. Then Saul sent messengers to check on David. He told them, "Bring him to me on the bed so I may kill him." The messengers went in, and there was the household idol in the bed with the cover of goat hair at its head! Then Saul told Michal, "Why did you deceive me like this and let my enemy go so he could escape?" Michal told Saul, "He told me, "Let me go or I'll kill you!'" David escaped and fled. He came to Samuel at Ramah and told him all that Saul had done to him. Then he and Samuel went and stayed at Naioth.
David escaped and fled. He came to Samuel at Ramah and told him all that Saul had done to him. Then he and Samuel went and stayed at Naioth. It was reported to Saul saying, "David is at Naioth in Ramah right now." read more. Saul sent messengers to take David, and they saw a group of prophets caught up in prophetic ecstasy, with Samuel standing beside them leading them. Then the Spirit of God came on Saul's messengers, and they also were caught up in prophetic ecstasy. They reported this to Saul, he sent other messengers, and they also were caught up in prophetic ecstasy. Then Saul himself went to Ramah, and he arrived at the large well that is in Secu. He asked, "Where are Samuel and David?" Someone replied, "They're at Naioth in Ramah." Saul went to Naioth in Ramah, and the Spirit of God came on him also. He continued in prophetic ecstasy until he came to Naioth in Ramah. He also removed his clothes and was caught up in prophetic ecstasy right in front of Samuel! He fell down naked and remained there all that day and all night. That is why people say, "Is Saul also among the prophets?"
David fled from Naioth in Ramah. He came to Jonathan and said, "What have I done? What is my crime, and how have I wronged your father so that he's determined to kill me? Jonathan told him, "Far from it! You won't die. Look, my father never does anything, great or small, without telling me; so why should my father hide this thing from me? It's not like that!" read more. David again took an oath: "Your father certainly knows that I've found favor with you, and so he told himself, "Jonathan must not know this so he won't be upset.' But as certainly as the LORD is alive and living, and as certainly as I'm alive and living, too, there is only a step between me and death." Jonathan told David, "Whatever you say, I'll do." David told Jonathan, "Look, the New Moon is tomorrow, and I'm expected to sit down with the king to eat. Let me go so I can hide in the field until the evening of the day after tomorrow. If your father actually notices that I'm not there, then you are to say, "David urgently requested that I allow him to run to his hometown of Bethlehem because the yearly sacrifice for the entire family was taking place there.' If he says, "Good,' then your servant will be safe. But if he actually gets angry, you will know that his intentions are evil. Now, show gracious kindness to your servant because you have entered into a sacred covenant with your servant. If there is iniquity in me, then kill me yourself why should you bring me to your father?" "Nonsense!" Jonathan replied. "If I actually knew that my father intended evil against you, wouldn't I tell you about it?" Then David told Jonathan, "Who will tell me if your father answers you harshly?" Then Jonathan told David, "Come, let's go into the field." So the two of them went into the field. Jonathan told David, "The LORD God of Israel is my witness that I'll carefully question my father by tomorrow or the next day. And if the response is favorable for David, will I not then send word to you and let you know? But if my father intends to harm you, may the LORD strike me dead if I don't let you know and send you away so you may go safely. May the LORD be with you as he has been with my father. If I remain alive, don't fail to show me the LORD's gracious love so that I don't die. And don't stop showing your gracious love to my family forever, not even when the LORD eliminates each of David's enemies from the surface of the earth." Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David: "May the LORD punish any violation of this covenant by the hand of David's enemies." Jonathan made David vow again out of his love for him, because he loved him as himself. Jonathan told him, "Tomorrow is the New Moon, and you will be missed because your seat is empty. On the third day go down quickly and come to the place where you hid earlier. Remain beside the rock at Ezel. I'll shoot three arrows to the side of the rock as though I were shooting at a target. Then I'll send a servant, saying, "Go, find the arrows.' If I specifically say to the servant, "Look, the arrows are on this side of you, get them,' then come out because it's safe for you, and, as surely as the LORD lives, there is no danger. But if I say this to the young man: "Look, the arrows are beyond you,' then go, for the LORD has sent you away. As for the matter about which you and I spoke, remember that the LORD is a witness between us forever." David hid in the field. When the New Moon arrived, the king sat down to eat. The king sat down at his place as before, in the seat by the wall. Jonathan stood while Abner sat next to Saul, but David's place was empty. Saul didn't say anything that day because he told himself, "Something has happened; he's unclean; surely he's not clean." But the next day, on the second day of the New Moon, David's place was empty, and so Saul told his son Jonathan, "Why didn't Jesse's son come to the festival, either yesterday or today?" Jonathan answered Saul, "David urgently requested that I let him go to Bethlehem. He said, "Please let me go because our family has a sacrifice in the town, and my brother has ordered me to come. Now, if it's acceptable to you, please let me get away so I can see my brothers.' That's the reason he didn't come to the king's table." Saul flew into a rage and told Jonathan, "You son of a perverse and rebellious woman! Don't I know that you have chosen Jesse's son to your shame and to the shame of your mother who bore you? As long as Jesse's son lives on the earth, neither you nor your kingdom will be established! Now send someone and bring David to me. He's a dead man!" Jonathan asked his father Saul, "Why should he be killed? What did he do?" Then Saul threw the spear that was beside him to strike Jonathan down. So Jonathan realized that his father was determined to kill David. So on the second day of the New Moon Jonathan angrily got up from the table without eating because he was upset about David, and because his father had humiliated him. In the morning Jonathan, accompanied by a servant, went out to the field for the appointment with David. Jonathan told his servant, "Run, find the arrows that I'm shooting." As the servant ran, Jonathan shot the arrow beyond him. The servant came to the place where Jonathan had shot it, and Jonathan called out to him, "The arrow is beyond you, isn't it?" Jonathan called out to the servant, "Hurry, be quick, don't stand around." Jonathan's servant picked up the arrow and brought it to his master. The servant was not aware of anything. Only Jonathan and David understood what had happened. Then Jonathan gave his equipment to the servant who was with him and told him, "Go, take these things to the city." The servant went. Then David came out from the south side of the rock, fell on his face, and bowed down three times. The men kissed each other, and both of them cried, but David even more. Jonathan told David, "Go in peace since both of us swore in the name of the LORD: "May the LORD be between me and you, and between my descendants and your descendants forever.'" Then David got up and left, while Jonathan went to the city.
David came to Nob to Ahimelech the priest, and Ahimelech was trembling as he came to meet David. Ahimelech told him, "Why are you alone, and no one with you?" David told Ahimelech the priest, "The king commanded me about a matter, saying to me, "Don't let anyone know anything about the matter I'm sending you to do and about which I've commanded you. I've directed the young men to a certain place.'
David got up that day and fled from Saul, and he went to King Achish of Gath. The officials of Achish told him, "Isn't this David, king of the land? Isn't this the one about whom they sang as they danced, "Saul has struck down his thousands, but David his ten thousands'?" read more. David took these words seriously, and he was very frightened of King Achish of Gath. So David changed his behavior before them and acted like he was crazy in their presence. He scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down his beard. Achish told his officials, "Look, you see a person acting like a madman. Why'd you bring him to me? Am I lacking madmen that you bring me this one to act like a madman around me? Shall this one come into my house?"
David left from there and escaped to the Cave of Adullam. His brothers and all his father's family heard about this and went down to him there. Everyone who was in distress, everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was malcontent gathered around him, and he became their leader. There were about 400 men with him. read more. David went from there to Mizpah of Moab, and he told the king of Moab, "Please let my father and mother come and stay with you until I know what God is going to do for me." David left them with the king of Moab, and they stayed with him all the time David was in the stronghold.
David left them with the king of Moab, and they stayed with him all the time David was in the stronghold.
When Saul heard that David and the men who were with him had been found, he was sitting in Gibeah, under the tamarisk tree on the hill, with his spear in his hand. All his officials were standing around him. Saul told his officials who were standing around him, "Listen, men of Benjamin! Will Jesse's son also give fields and vineyards to all of you? Will he make all of you officers over thousands and officers over hundreds? read more. But all of you have conspired against me, and no one tells me about my son's covenant with Jesse's son. None of you feels sorry for me and tells me that my son has stirred up my servant against me to lie in wait, as he's doing this day." Then Doeg the Edomite, who was in charge of Saul's servants answered: "I saw Jesse's son coming to Nob to Ahitub's son Ahimelech. Ahimelech inquired of the LORD for him, gave him provisions, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine."
Ahimelech inquired of the LORD for him, gave him provisions, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine." The king sent for Ahitub's son Ahimelech the priest and for all his father's family who were priests at Nob. All of them came to the king. read more. Saul said, "Listen, son of Ahitub!" And he said, "Here I am, your majesty." Then Saul asked him, "Why have you conspired against me you and Jesse's son by giving him food and a sword, and by inquiring of God for him, so he can rise up against me to lie in wait, as he's doing today?" Ahimelech answered the king, "Who among all your officials is as faithful as David? He is the king's son-in-law, the captain of your bodyguard, and he's honored in your household. Is today the first time I inquired of God for him? Absolutely not! The king shouldn't accuse his servant, or any of my father's family of anything, because your servant didn't know anything at all about this." The king said, "Ahimelech, you will surely die, you and all your father's family!" The king told the guards, who were standing beside him, "Turn and kill the priests of the LORD because they supported David, and because they knew he was fleeing, but didn't inform me." But the officials of the king did not want to lift their hands to attack the priests of the LORD. Then the king told Doeg, "You turn and attack the priests." Doeg the Edomite turned and attacked the priests. That day he killed eighty-five men who carry the linen ephod.
One man, Ahimelech's son Abiathar, a grandson of Ahitub, escaped and fled to David.
Now when Ahimelech's son Abiathar had fled to David in Keilah, the ephod had come down with him. It was reported to Saul that David had come to Keilah, and Saul said, "The LORD has delivered him into my hand because he has shut himself in by going into a town with double gates and bars." read more. Saul summoned for battle all his forces to go down to Keilah, to besiege David and his men. David knew that Saul was devising evil plans against him, and so he told Abiathar the priest, "Bring the ephod." David said, "LORD God of Israel. Your servant has definitely heard that Saul intends to come to Keilah to destroy the town because of me. Will the people of Keilah hand me over to him? Will Saul come down just as your servant has heard? LORD God of Israel, please inform your servant." The LORD said, "He will come down." Then David said, "Will the people of Keilah hand me over to Saul?"
David stayed in the wilderness in the strongholds, and he lived in the hill country in the wilderness of Ziph. Saul sought him every day, but God did not let David slip into Saul's control.
People from Ziph came up to Saul at Gibeah and informed him, "David is hiding with us in the strongholds in Horesh and on the hill of Hachilah south of Jeshimon, isn't he?
People from Ziph came up to Saul at Gibeah and informed him, "David is hiding with us in the strongholds in Horesh and on the hill of Hachilah south of Jeshimon, isn't he?
People from Ziph came up to Saul at Gibeah and informed him, "David is hiding with us in the strongholds in Horesh and on the hill of Hachilah south of Jeshimon, isn't he? Now, your majesty, whenever you want to come down, come down, and our part will be to hand him over to the king."
Now I know for certain that you will be king, and that the kingdom will be established under your authority. Now swear to me by the LORD that you will never eliminate my descendants after me, and that you won't erase my name from my father's family." read more. David made this vow to Saul, and then Saul went home, while David and his men went up to the stronghold.
Samuel died and all Israel assembled to mourn for him. They buried him at his home in Ramah.
Samuel died and all Israel assembled to mourn for him. They buried him at his home in Ramah. David got up and went down to the Wilderness of Paran. Now there was a man in Maon whose business was in Carmel of Judah, and the man was very rich. He had 3,000 sheep and 1,000 goats, and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel.
People from Ziph came to Saul in Gibeah and informed him, "David is hiding on the hill of Hachilah which is across from Jeshimon, isn't he?"
Now let your majesty listen to the words of his servant. If the LORD incited you against me, then may he accept an offering. But if it is people, may they be cursed in the LORD's presence, because they have driven me out today from sharing in the inheritance of the LORD by saying, "Go serve other gods.'
David told himself, "One of these days I'll perish by Saul's hand. There is nothing better for me to do than to escape to Philistine territory. Saul will give up searching for me anymore within the borders of Israel, so I'll escape from him."
David told himself, "One of these days I'll perish by Saul's hand. There is nothing better for me to do than to escape to Philistine territory. Saul will give up searching for me anymore within the borders of Israel, so I'll escape from him."
Now Samuel had died, and all Israel had mourned for him and buried him in his own town of Ramah. Saul had expelled the mediums and spiritists from the land.
Samuel told Saul, "Why did you disturb me by bringing me up?" Saul said, "I'm in great distress. The Philistines are waging war against me. God has departed from me and won't answer me anymore, either by messages written by the hand of the prophets or by dreams. So I've summoned you to tell me what I should do." Samuel said, "Why do you ask me, since the LORD has departed from you and become your enemy? read more. The LORD has done to you exactly as he spoke through me. The LORD has torn the kingdom away from you and has given it to your colleague David. Because you didn't obey the LORD and didn't display his fierce anger against Amalek, therefore, the LORD will do this thing to you today. The LORD is giving both you, and Israel with you, into Philistine control. Tomorrow, the LORD will give you, your sons with you, and also the army of Israel into the control of the Philistines."
David's two wives, Ahinoam from Jezreel and Abigail, Nabal's former wife, had been captured.
David rescued everyone whom the Amalekites had captured, including his two wives.
They took their bones, buried them under the tamarisk tree in Jabesh, and fasted for seven days.
David asked the young man who related the story, "How do you know that Saul and his son Jonathan are dead?" The young man who had been relating the story answered, "I happened to be on Mount Gilboa and there was Saul, leaning on his spear! Meanwhile, the chariots and horsemen were rapidly drawing near. read more. Saul glanced behind him, saw me, and called out to me, so I replied, "Here I am!' He asked me, "Who are you?' So I answered him, "I'm an Amalekite!' He begged me, "Please come stand here next to me and kill me, because I'm still alive.' So I stood next to him and killed him, because I knew that he wouldn't live after he had fallen. I took the crown that had been on his head, along with the bracelet that had been on his arm, and I have brought them to your majesty."
Meanwhile, David asked the young man who had told him the story, "Where are you from?" He answered, "I'm an Amalekite, the son of a foreign man." At this David asked him, "How is it that you weren't afraid to raise your hand to strike the LORD's anointed?" read more. Then David called out to one of his young men and ordered him, "Go up to him and cut him down!" So he attacked him and killed him. David told him, "Your blood is on your own head, because your own words testified against you! After all, you said, "I myself have killed the LORD's anointed!'"
Some time later, David inquired of the LORD to ask, "Am I to move to any one of the cities of Judah?" The LORD told him, "Go." So David asked, "To which one?" He replied, "To Hebron."
But Asahel refused to turn away, so Abner struck Asahel in the abdomen with the butt end of his spear, and the spear protruded through his back. He collapsed to the ground and died where he fell. Everyone gathered round the place where Asahel had collapsed and died, and stood still there.
While war continued between the dynasties of Saul and David, Abner was growing in influence within the dynasty of Saul.
He said this because Joab and his brother Abishai murdered Abner after he had killed their brother Asahel in the battle at Gibeon.
So all the elders of Israel approached the king at Hebron, where King David entered into a covenant with them in the presence of the LORD. Then they anointed David to be king over Israel.
So all the elders of Israel approached the king at Hebron, where King David entered into a covenant with them in the presence of the LORD. Then they anointed David to be king over Israel. David began to reign when he was 30 years old, and he reigned 40 years.
David began to reign when he was 30 years old, and he reigned 40 years. He reigned over Judah for seven years and six months in Hebron, and he reigned over all of Israel including Judah for 33 years in Jerusalem.
He reigned over Judah for seven years and six months in Hebron, and he reigned over all of Israel including Judah for 33 years in Jerusalem. Later, the king and his army marched on Jerusalem against the Jebusites, who were inhabiting the territory at that time and who had told David, "You're not coming in here! Even the blind and the lame could turn you away!" because they were thinking "David can't come here."
Later, the king and his army marched on Jerusalem against the Jebusites, who were inhabiting the territory at that time and who had told David, "You're not coming in here! Even the blind and the lame could turn you away!" because they were thinking "David can't come here." Even so, David captured the stronghold of Zion, which is now known as the City of David.
Even so, David captured the stronghold of Zion, which is now known as the City of David. At that time, David had said, "Whoever intends to attack the Jebusites will have to climb up the water shaft to attack the lame and blind, who hate David."
At that time, David had said, "Whoever intends to attack the Jebusites will have to climb up the water shaft to attack the lame and blind, who hate David." Therefore they say, "The blind and lame are never to come into the house." David occupied the fortress, naming it the City of David. He built up the surroundings from the terrace ramparts inward. read more. David became more and more esteemed because the LORD God of the Heavenly Armies was with him. Later, King Hiram of Tyre sent a delegation to David, accompanied by cedar logs, carpenters, and stone masons. They built a palace for David. So David concluded that the LORD had established him as king over Israel and that he had exalted his kingdom in order to benefit his people Israel. But after arriving in Jerusalem after leaving Hebron, David took more wives and mistresses, and more sons and daughters were born to David. These are the names of those who were born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet. When the Philistines eventually learned that Israel had anointed David to be king over Israel, they marched out in search of him. But David heard about it and retreated to his stronghold. Meanwhile, the Philistines arrived and encamped in the Rephaim Valley, so David asked the LORD, "Am I to go attack the Philistines? Will you give me victory over them?" "Go get them," the LORD replied to David, "because I'm going to put the Philistines right into your hand!" So David went to Baal-perazim and defeated them there. He called the place Baal-perazim, because he said, "Like a bursting flood, the LORD has jumped out in front of me to fight my enemies." The Philistines abandoned their idols there, and David and his army carried them off. Later, the Philistines once again marched out and encamped in the Rephaim Valley. When David asked the LORD about it, he said, "Don't attack them directly. Instead, go around to the rear and attack them opposite those balsam trees. When you hear the sound of marching coming from the tops of the balsam trees, then be sure to act quickly, since the LORD will have gone out ahead of you to cut down the Philistine army."
And Saul's daughter Michal bore no children from that day on until the day she died.
He will build a Temple dedicated to my Name, and I will make the throne of his kingdom last forever.
And therefore you are great, Lord GOD, there is no one like you, there is no God except for you, just as we've heard with our own ears.
David erected garrisons in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, placing the Arameans under servitude to him, and they paid tribute to him.
He also confiscated a vast quantity of bronze from Betah and Berothai, cities under Hadadezer's control. When King Tou of Hamath learned that David had conquered the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, read more. Tou sent his son Joram to King David to greet him and congratulate him on his victory over Hadadezer, because he had been at war with Tou. Joram brought articles of silver, gold, and bronze with him, and King David dedicated them to the LORD, along with the silver and gold that had been dedicated from all the nations that he had conquered,
and King David dedicated them to the LORD, along with the silver and gold that had been dedicated from all the nations that he had conquered, including from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, Amalek, and spoil from King Hadadezer, Rehob's son from Zobah.
including from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, Amalek, and spoil from King Hadadezer, Rehob's son from Zobah. David made a name for himself when he returned from killing 18,000 Edomites in the Salt Valley. read more. He erected garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites became subservient to David, while the LORD gave victory to David wherever he went.
Zeruiah's son Joab served in charge of the army, Ahilud's son Jehoshaphat was his personal archivist, Ahitub's son Zadok and Abiathar's son Ahimelech were priests, Seraiah was his personal secretary, read more. Jehoida's son Benaiah supervised the special forces and mercenaries, and David's sons were priests.
Later on, David asked, "Is there anyone left alive from Saul's household to whom I can show gracious love in memory of Jonathan?"
Who killed Jerubbesheth's son Abimelech? Didn't a woman kill him by throwing an upper millstone on him from the wall at Thebez? Why did you go so close to the wall?' then tell him, "Your servant Uriah the Hittite also died.'"
But Nathan replied to David, "You are the man! This is what the LORD God of Israel says: ""I anointed you king and you became king over Israel. ""I delivered you from Saul's control. ""I gave you your former master's household. ""I placed your former master's wives right in your arms. ""I gave you Israel and Judah. ""And if this had been too little, I would have added much more than that to you!
""Therefore the sword will never leave your household, because you have despised me by taking the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your own.' "This is what the LORD says: ""Listen very carefully! ""I'm raising up evil against you right out of your own household. ""I'm going to take your wives away from you right before your eyes. ""Then I'll give them to your neighbor. ""And then he's going to have sex with your wives in broad daylight! read more. ""What you did in secret I'm going to do right in front of all Israel and in broad daylight as well!'"
Now she was clothed in a long sleeved, multi-colored ornamental tunic, commonly worn by the king's virgin daughters. When Amnon's servant threw her out and locked the door after her,
After fleeing to Geshur, Absalom remained there for three years.
Now throughout all of Israel no one was as handsome as Absalom or so highly praised, from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head there wasn't a single thing wrong about him.
Now throughout all of Israel no one was as handsome as Absalom or so highly praised, from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head there wasn't a single thing wrong about him. Whenever he cut his hair he cut it at the end of every year, because it grew thick on his head, which is why he cut it his hair weighed in at 200 shekels measured by the royal standard. read more. Absalom fathered three sons and one daughter, whom he named Tamar. She was a beautiful woman, both in form and appearance.
David mustered his forces and appointed officers in charge of regiments and companies. Dividing his forces into three groups, he set Joab as commander of one third of his army, Zeruiah's son Abishai, Joab's brother, as commander of another third, and Ittai from Gath as commander of another third. The king informed the army, "I'm going out to battle with you, too." read more. "No way!" his army responded. "If we have to retreat from the battle, Absalom's men won't care about us. Even if half of us die, they won't care about us. But you are worth 10,000 of us. The best thing you can do for us is to remain in the city." So David responded, "I'll do what you think best." Then he stood alongside the city gate as the army went out in battle array by hundreds and thousands. As they were going out, the king ordered Joab, Abishai, and Ittai, "Treat young Absalom gently for my sake." Everyone heard what the king had ordered his commanders about Absalom. David's army left for the battlefield to fight Absalom and his Israeli followers, and they also fought in the Ephraim forest,
"There's no reason to wait for you!" Joab retorted. Then he took three spears in his hand and stabbed Absalom in the heart while he was still alive, dangling from the branches of the oak tree.
At this, Joab sounded his battle trumpet and his troops stopped pursuing the other Israelis.
While Absalom had been living, he had erected a pillar as a monument to himself in King's Valley because he had been telling himself, "I don't have a son to carry on my family name." So he named the pillar after himself it's called Absalom's Monument even today.
Joab commanded the entire army of Israel, Jehoiada's son Benaiah commanded the special forces and mercenaries, Adoram supervised conscripted labor, Ahilud's son Jehoshaphat was the recorder, read more. Sheva was secretary, Zadok and Abiathar were priests, and Ira the Jairite was David's priest.
So the king called together the Gibeonites and conferred with them. Now the Gibeonites weren't part of the nation of Israel, but were the survivors from the Amorites. Although the Israelis had promised to spare them, Saul had started to execute them in his zeal for the people of Israel and Judah. So David asked the Gibeonites, "What am I to do for you? How am I to make atonement so that you will bless the LORD's heritage?"
So the king answered, "I will give them." The king exempted Mephibosheth, the son of Saul's son Jonathan, because of the promise to the LORD that existed between David and Saul's son Jonathan.
In yet another battle at Gob, Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite's son Elhanan killed Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear resembled that of a weaver's beam.
These four giants, who had been fathered by a giant in Gath, were killed at the hands of David and his servants.
This was David's last composition: The oracle of David, son of Jesse, an oracle by the valiant one who was exalted anointed by the God of Jacob, the contented psalm writer of Israel.
Whoever handles them wears heavy duty clothing, carries strong tools, and burns them to ashes on the spot!
David was living in that stronghold at the time, while a Philistine garrison was then at Bethlehem.
He was well known among the platoons, but he didn't measure up to the Three. David placed him in charge of his security detail.
Later, God's anger blazed forth against Israel, so he incited David to move against them by telling him, "Go take a census of Israel and Judah."
Later, God's anger blazed forth against Israel, so he incited David to move against them by telling him, "Go take a census of Israel and Judah." So the king ordered Joab, commander of the special forces, who was with him, "Go throughout the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba and take a census of the people so I can be made aware of the total number." read more. But Joab replied, "May the LORD your God increase the population of the people a hundredfold while your majesty the king is still alive to see it happen! But why does your majesty the king want to do this?" But the king's order overruled Joab and the commanders of the special forces, so Joab and the commanders of the special forces left David's presence to take a census of the people of Israel. They crossed the Jordan River, encamped at Aroer south of the town that is located in the river valley, proceeding through Gad and then on toward Jazer. They went on to Gilead and the territory of Tahtim-hodshi, then on toward Dan. From Dan they went around to Sidon and arrived at the fortified city of Tyre and all of the towns of the Hivites and Canaanites. Eventually they proceeded to Beer-sheba in the Judean Negev. After they had traveled throughout the entire land, they returned to Jerusalem at the end of nine months and 20 days. Joab reported the total number of men to the king. In Israel there were 800,000 men trained for war. In Judah there were 500,000. Later, David's conscience bothered him after he had numbered the army, so David told the LORD, "I have sinned greatly by what I did. But now I am asking you, please remove the guilt of your servant, since I have acted very foolishly." Before David arose the next morning, this message from the LORD came to Gad, David's seer: "Go tell David, "This is what the LORD says: "I'm holding three choices out for you: pick one of them for yourself, and I will do it to you."'" So Gad went to David and asked him, "Shall seven years of famine come to your land, or three months of reversals while you flee from your enemies as they pursue you, or three days of pestilence in your land? Decide right now what I am to answer to the one who sent me." So David replied to Gad, "This is a very difficult choice for me to make! Let me now please fall into the hand of the LORD, since his mercy is very great, but may I never fall into human hands!" That very morning, the LORD sent a pestilence to Israel until the conclusion of the time designated, and 70,000 men died from Dan to Beer-sheba. As the angel was stretching out his hand to destroy Jerusalem, the LORD was grieved because of the calamity, so he told the angel who was afflicting the people, "Enough! Stay your hand!" So the angel of the LORD remained near the threshing floor that belonged to Araunah the Jebusite. When David saw the angel who had been attacking the people, he told the LORD, "Look, I'm the one who has sinned! I did the evil. These are only sheep! What did they do? Please, let your hand fall on me and on my household!" That very day, Gad approached David and told him, "Go up and build an altar to the LORD on the threshing floor that belongs to Araunah the Jebusite." So David went up, just as Gad had ordered, consistent with the LORD's command. When Araunah looked down, he saw the king and his staff approaching him. Araunah went out, bowed down before the king with his face on the ground, and asked him, "Why has your majesty the king come to his servant?" David replied, "To purchase your threshing floor and to build an altar to the LORD, so the pestilence can be averted from the people." Araunah responded to David, "May your majesty the king take it and offer whatever pleases him. Here are oxen for a burnt offering, along with the threshing sledges and yokes from the oxen for wood!
When David had grown very old, they covered him with blankets, but he could not keep warm,
Samuel, Books of,
are not separated from each other in the Hebrew MSS., and, from a critical point of view, must be regarded as one book. The present, division was first made in the Septuagint translation, and was adopted in the Vulgate from the Septuagint. The book was called by the Hebrews: "Samuel," probably because the birth and life of Samuel were the subjects treated of in the beginning of the work. The books of Samuel commence with the history of Eli and Samuel, and contain all account of the establishment of the Hebrew monarchy and of the reigns of Saul and David, with the exception of the last days of the latter monarch which are related in the beginning of the books of Kings, of which those of Samuel form the previous portion. [KINGS, B00KS OF] Authorship and date of the book,--
See Kings, First and Second Books of
1. As to the authorship. In common with all the historical books of the Old Testament, except the beginning of Nehemiah, the book of Samuel contains no mention in the text of the name of its author. It is indisputable that the title "Samuel" does not imply that the prophet was the author of the book of Samuel as a whole; for the death of Samuel is recorded in the beginning of the 25th chapter. In our own time the most prevalent idea in the Anglican Church seems to have been that the first twenty-four chapters of the book of Samuel were written by the prophet himself, and the rest of the chapters by the prophets Nathan and Gad. This, however, is doubtful.
2. But although the authorship cannot be ascertained with certainty, it appears clear that, in its present form it must have been composed subsequent to the secession of the ten tribes, B.C. 975. This results from the passage in
wherein it is said of David, "Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah to this day:" for neither Saul, David nor Solomon is in a single instance called king of Judah simply. On the other hand, it could hardly have been written later than the reformation of Josiah, since it seems to have been composed at a time when the Pentateuch was not acted on as the rule of religious observances, which received a special impetus at the finding of the Book of the Law at the reformation of Josiah. All, therefore, that can be asserted with any certainty is that the book, as a whole, can scarcely have been composed later than the reformation of Josiah, and that it could not have existed in its present form earlier than the reign of Rehoboam. The book of Samuel is one of the best specimens of Hebrew prose in the golden age of Hebrew literature. In prose it holds the same place which Joel and the undisputed prophecies of Isaiah hold in poetical or prophetical language.