1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
For when they have a matter, they come unto me, and I must judge between every man and his neighbor, and must show them the ordinances of God and his laws."
And the LORD said unto Moses, "Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, 'Ye have seen how that I have talked with you from out of heaven.
Then let his master bring him unto the judges and set him to the door or the doorpost, and bore his ear through with an awl, and let him be his servant forever.
If a man deliver his neighbor money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of his house: If the thief be found, he shall pay double.
Neither shall they dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be thy decay."
Hear, O Israel, the LORD thy God is one LORD only. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, with all thy soul and with all thy might.
And the king of Jericho sent unto Rahab, saying, "Bring forth the men that are come to thee, which are entered into thine house: for they be come to search out all the land."
If one man sin against another, the judge can redress it. But if a man sin against the LORD, who can redress it?" Notwithstanding, they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, for the LORD's will was to slay them.
Thus sayeth the LORD of Hosts, the God of Israel, "Yea, heap up your burnt offerings with your sacrifices, and eat the flesh. But when I brought your fathers out of Egypt, I spake no word unto them of burnt offerings and sacrifices:
Behold, the days come, sayeth the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: not after the covenant that I made with their fathers, when I took them by the hand, and led them out of the land of Egypt: which covenant they brake, wherefore I punished them sore, sayeth the LORD: read more. But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, sayeth the LORD: I will plant my law in the inward parts of them, and write it in their hearts, and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And from thenceforth shall no man teach his neighbour or his brother, and say, 'Know the LORD.' But they shall all know me, from the lowest unto the highest, sayeth the LORD. For I will forgive their misdeeds, and will never remember their sins anymore.
Thus shall it have eighteen thousand measures round about. And from that time forth, the name of the city shall be, 'The LORD is there.'"
Though I show them my law never so much, they count it but strange doctrine.
but see that equity flow as the water, and righteousness as a mighty stream. O ye house of Israel, gave ye me offerings and sacrifices those forty years long in the wilderness? read more. Yet have ye set up tabernacles to your Moloch, and images of your Idols, yea and the star of your god Rempha: figures which ye made to worship them.
Jesus answered and said to him, "Let it be so now, for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he suffered him.
"Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the Prophets: No, I am not come to destroy them but to fulfill them.
"Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the Prophets: No, I am not come to destroy them but to fulfill them. For truly I say unto you, till heaven and earth perish, one jot or one tittle of the law shall not escape till all be fulfilled.
For truly I say unto you, till heaven and earth perish, one jot or one tittle of the law shall not escape till all be fulfilled.
For truly I say unto you, till heaven and earth perish, one jot or one tittle of the law shall not escape till all be fulfilled. Whosoever breaketh one of these least commandments, and teacheth men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But whosoever observeth, and teacheth the same, shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. read more. For I say unto you, Except your righteousness exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven. "Ye have heard how it was said unto them of the old time, 'Thou shalt not kill; for whosoever killeth shall be in danger of judgment:' But I say unto you, Whosoever is angry with his brother shall be in danger of judgment: whosoever sayeth unto his brother, 'Raca,' shall be in danger of a council: but whosoever sayeth, 'Thou fool,' shall be in danger of hell fire. Therefore when thou offerest thy gift at the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; leave there thine offering before the altar, and go thy way first, and be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest that adversary deliver ye to the judge, and the judge deliver ye to the minister, and then thou be cast into prison. I say unto ye verily, Thou shalt not come out thence, till thou have paid the utmost farthing. "Ye have heard how it was said to them of old time, 'Thou shalt not commit adultery:' But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a wife lusting after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. Wherfore if thy right eye offend thee, pluck him out, and cast him from thee: better it is for thee that one of thy members perish, than that thy whole body should be cast into hell. Also: if thy right hand offend thee, cut him off, and cast him from thee: better it is that one of thy members perish than that all thy body should be cast into hell. It is said, Whosoever put away his wife let him give her a testimonial also of the divorcement. But I say unto you, Whosoever put away his wife, except it be for fornication, causeth her to break matrimony. And whosoever marryeth her that is divorced breaketh wedlock. "Again, ye have heard how it was said to them of old time, 'Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform thine oath to God': But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's seat: nor yet by the earth; for it is His footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of that great King: neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one white hair or black: But your communication shall be, 'Yea, Yea; Nay, nay': for whatsoever is more than that cometh of evil. "Ye have heard how it is said, 'An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.' But I say to you, That ye resist not wrong. But whosoever give thee a blow on thy right cheek, turn to him the other. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever will compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain. Give to him that asketh, and from him that would borrow, turn not away. "Ye have heard how it is said, 'Thou shalt love thine neighbor, and hate thine enemy.' But I say unto you, Love your enemies. Bless them that curse you. Do good to them that hate you. Pray for them which do you wrong and persecute you; that ye may be the children of your father that is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to arise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth his rain on the just and unjust. For if ye love them which love you, what reward shall ye have? Do not the Publicans even so? And if ye be friendly to your brethren only, what singular thing do ye? Do not the Publicans likewise? Ye shall therefore be perfect even as your father which is in heaven is perfect.
And it came to pass, that when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine:
And Jesus said unto him, "See thou tell no man; but go, and show thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, to be offered in witness to them."
Or have ye not read in the law, how that the priests in the temple break the Sabbath day, and yet are blameless? But I say unto you, that here is one greater than the temple.
And he said unto them, "Which of you would it be, if he had a sheep fallen into a pit on the Sabbath day, that would not take him and lift him out?
But if I cast out the devils by the spirit of God, then is the kingdom of God come on you? Either how can a man enter into a strong man's house, and violently take away his goods, except he first bind the strong man, and then spoil his house? read more. He that is not with me, is against me: And he that gathereth not with me, scattereth abroad.
The queen of the south shall rise at the day of judgment with this generation, and shall condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the world, to hear the wisdom of Solomon. And behold, a greater than Solomon is here.
He answered, and said, "I am not sent, but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel."
Nevertheless, lest we should offend them, go to the sea and cast in thine angle, and take the fish that first cometh up: and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of twenty pence: that take, and pay for me and thee."
Then came unto him the Pharisees to tempt him, and said to him, "Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for all manner of causes?" He answered, and said unto them, "Have ye not read, how that he which made man at the beginning, made them man and woman? read more. and said, 'For this thing, shall a man leave father and mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they twain shall be one flesh.' Wherefore now are they not twain, but one flesh. Let not man therefore put asunder, that which God hath coupled together." Then said they to him, "Why did Moses command to give unto her a testimonial of divorcement, and to put her away?" He said unto them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to put away your wives: But from the beginning it was not so. I say therefore unto you, whosoever putteth away his wife, except it be for fornication, and marrieth another, breaketh wedlock. And whosoever marrieth her which is divorced, doth commit adultery."
Even as the son of man came, not to be ministered unto, but to minister: and to give his life for the redemption of many."
When the Pharisees had heard, how that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they drew together, and one of them, which was a doctor of law, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, read more. "Master, which is the chief commandment in the law?" Jesus said unto him, "'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.' This is the first and that chief commandment. And there is another like unto this: 'Thou shalt love thine neighbor as thyself.' In these two commandments, hang all the law and the prophets."
This is my blood of the new testament, that shall be shed for many, for the forgiveness of sins.
And it chanced that he went through the corn fields on the Sabbath day; and his disciples, as they went on their way, began to pluck the ears of corn. And the Pharisees said unto him, "Behold, why do they on the Sabbath day that which is not lawful?" read more. And he said to them, "Have ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was a hungered both he and they that were with him? How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the hallowed loaves, which is not lawful but for the priests only to eat: and gave also to them which were with him?" And he said to them, "The Sabbath day was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath day.
And he said to them, "The Sabbath day was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath day. Wherefore, the son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath day."
and they watched him, to see whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him.
In vain they worship me, teaching doctrines which are nothing but the commandments of men, for ye lay the commandment of God apart, and ye observe the traditions of men as the washing of cruses and of cups, and many other such like things ye do." read more. And he said unto them, "Well, ye cast aside the commandment of God, to maintain your own traditions. For Moses said, 'Honour thy father and thy mother,' and, 'Whosoever curseth father or mother, let him die for it.' But ye say, 'A man shall say to his father or mother, Corban; which is, that thou desirest of me, to help thee with, is given to God.' And so ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother, making the word of God of none effect through your own traditions which ye have ordained. And many such things ye do." And he called all the people unto him, and said unto them, "Hearken unto me every one of you and understand: There is nothing without a man that can defile him when it entereth into him, but those things which proceed out of him are those which defile the man. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." And when he came into a house away from the people, his disciples asked him of the similitude, and he said unto them, "Are ye so without understanding? Do ye not yet perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into a man, it cannot defile him, because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly: and goeth out into the draught that purgeth out all meats."
because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly: and goeth out into the draught that purgeth out all meats." And he said, "That defileth a man which cometh out of a man. read more. For from within even out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts: adultery, fornication, murder, theft, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, uncleanness, and a wicked eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: All these evil things come from within, and defile a man."
And he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the highest priest asked him, and said unto him, "Art thou the Christ, the son of the blessed?"
And when the eighth day was come that the child should be circumcised, his name was called Jesus, which was named of the angel before he was conceived in the mother's womb.
And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Isaiah. And when he had opened the book, he found the place, where it was written, "The spirit of the Lord upon me, because he hath anointed me; To preach the gospel to the poor he hath sent me; And to heal which are broken hearted: To preach deliverance to the captive; And sight to the blind; And freely to set at liberty them that are bruised; read more. And to preach the acceptable year of the Lord." And he closed the book, and gave it again to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all that were in the synagogue, were fastened on him. And he began to say unto them, "This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears."
And behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, "Master what shall I do, to inherit eternal life?" He said unto him, "What is written in the law? How readest thou?" read more. And he answered and said, "Thou shalt love thy Lord God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind: and thy neighbor as thyself." And he said unto him, "Thou hast answered right. This do and thou shalt live." He, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, "Who is then my neighbor?" Jesus answered and said, "A certain man descended from Jerusalem into Jericho; And fell into the hands of thieves, which robbed him of his raiment and wounded him, and departed leaving him half dead. And by chance, there came a certain priest that same way, and when he saw him, he passed by. And likewise a Levite, when he was come nigh to the place, went and looked on him, and passed by. Then a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came nigh unto him: and when he saw him, had compassion on him, and went to him, and bound up his wounds, and poured in wine, and oil, and put him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and made provision for him. And on the morrow, when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host and said unto him, 'Take care of him, and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again I will recompense thee.' Which now of these three, thinkest thou was neighbor unto him that fell into the thieves hands?" And he said, "He that showed mercy on him." Then said Jesus unto him, "Go and do thou likewise."
And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat. When the Pharisee saw that, he marveled that he had not first washed before dinner. read more. And the Lord said to him, "Now do ye, O Pharisees, make clean the outside of the cup, and of the platter: but your inward parts are full of ravening and wickedness. Ye fools: did not he that made that which is without, make that which is within also? Nevertheless, ye give alms of that ye have, and behold: all is clean to you.
And ought not this daughter of Abraham, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day, whom Satan hath bound lo, eighteen years?" And when he thus said, all his adversaries were ashamed; and all the people rejoiced on all the excellent deeds that were done by him.
The law, and the prophets reigned until the time of John: and since that time, the kingdom of God is preached, and every man striveth to go in.
For I say unto you that, yet, that which is written must be performed in me: for those things which are written of me have an end."
And he began at Moses, and at all the prophets, and interpreted unto them, in all scriptures which were written of him.
For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
And as Moses lift up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the son of man be lift up,
And immediately the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and went. And the same day was the Sabbath day. The Jews therefore said unto him that was made whole, "It is the Sabbath day: it is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed." read more. He answered them, "He that made me whole, said unto me, 'Take up thy bed, and get thee hence.'" Then asked they him, "What man is that which said unto thee, 'Take up thy bed and walk?'" And he that was healed, wist not who it was. For Jesus had gotten himself away, because that there was press of people in the place. And after that, Jesus found him in the temple, and said unto him, "Behold, thou art made whole: see thou sin no more, lest a worse thing happen unto thee." The man departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus which had made him whole. And therefore the Jews did persecute Jesus, and sought the means to slay him, because he had done these things on the Sabbath day. And Jesus answered them, "My father worketh hitherto, and I work." Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, not only because he had broken the Sabbath: but said also that God was his father and made himself equal with God. Then answered Jesus and said unto them, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, The son can do no thing of himself: but that he seeth the father do. For whatsoever he doeth, that doeth the son also. For the father loveth the son, and showeth him all things, whatsoever he himself doeth. And he will show him greater works than these, because ye should marvel.
It is written in the prophets, 'That they shall all be taught of God.' Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the father, cometh unto me:
I am that living bread, which came down from heaven. If any man eat of this bread, he shall live forever. And the bread that I will give, is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."
Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead? And the prophets are dead: Whom makest thou thyself?"
Then said some of the Pharisees, "This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the Sabbath day." Others said, "How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles?" And there was strife among them.
Then again called they the man that was blind, and said unto him, "Give God the praise; we know that this man is a sinner."
Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I have say ye are gods?'
And one of them named Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year, said unto them, "Ye perceive nothing at all:
Verily, verily I say unto you, except the wheat corn fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone. If it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.
The people answered him, "We have heard out of the law that Christ bideth ever: and how sayest thou then that the son of man must be lifted up? Who is that son of man?"
Even that the saying might be fulfilled that is written in their law, 'They hated me without a cause.'
The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and by our law he ought to die: because he made himself the son of God."
Be it known unto you therefore, ye men and brethren, that through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins;
What shall we say, then, that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, did find? If Abraham were justified by deeds, then hath he wherein to rejoice: but not with God. read more. For what saith the scripture? "Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness." To him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of favour: but of duty. To him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, is his faith counted for righteousness.
But the law, in the meantime, entered in that sin should increase. Neverthelater, where abundance of sin was, there was more plenteousness of grace.
What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid: but I knew not what sin meant but by the law. For I had not known what lust had meant, except the law had said, "Thou shalt not lust." But sin took an occasion by the means of the commandment, and wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For verily, without the law sin was dead. read more. I once lived without law: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I was dead. And the very same commandment which was ordained unto life, was found to be unto me an occasion of death. For sin took occasion by the means of the commandment and so deceived me, and by the selfsame commandment, slew me. Wherefore the law is holy: and the commandment holy, just, and good.
Wherefore the law is holy: and the commandment holy, just, and good. Was that, then, which is good made death unto me? God forbid. Nay, sin was death unto me, that it might appear: how that sin by the means of that which is good, had wrought death in me: that sin which is under the commandment, might be out of measure sinful.
Was that, then, which is good made death unto me? God forbid. Nay, sin was death unto me, that it might appear: how that sin by the means of that which is good, had wrought death in me: that sin which is under the commandment, might be out of measure sinful. For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin: read more. because I know not what I do. For what I would, that do I not: but what I hate, that do I. If I do now that which I would not, I grant to the law that it is good. So then, now it is not I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. For I know that in me, that is to say, in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing. To will is present with me: but I find no means to perform that which is good. For I do not that good thing which I would: but that evil do I, which I would not. Finally, if I do that I would not, then is it not I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me doeth it. I find then, by the law, that when I would do good, evil is present with me. I delight in the law of God, as concerning the inner man. But I see another law in my members rebelling against the law of my mind, and subduing me unto the law of sin, which is in my members. O wretched man that I am: who shall deliver me from this body of death?
For the law of the spirit, that bringeth life through Jesus Christ, hath delivered me from the law of sin, and death: For what the law could not do, inasmuch as it was weak because of the flesh - that performed God, and sent his son in the similitude of sinful flesh, and by sin damned sin in the flesh;
But Israel, which followed the law of righteousness, could not attain unto the law of righteousness.
For they are ignorant of the righteousness which is allowed before God, and go about to establish their own righteousness: and therefore, are not obedient unto the righteousness which is of value before God.
Unto the married command not I, but the Lord: that the wife separate not herself from the man.
but have cast from us the cloaks of unhonesty, and walk not in craftiness, neither corrupt we the word of God: but walk in open truth, and report ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God.
But I through the law am dead to the law, that I might live unto God.
Is the law, then, against the promise of God? God forbid. Howbeit, if there had been a law given which could have given life: then no doubt righteousness should have come by the law.
Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster unto the time of Christ, that we might be made righteous by faith.
And I say that the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth not from a servant; though he be lord of all, but is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed of the father. read more. Even so we, as long as we were children, were in bondage under the ordinances of the world: But when the time was full come, God sent his son - born of a woman, and made bond unto the law -
But when the time was full come, God sent his son - born of a woman, and made bond unto the law - to redeem them which were under the law: that we through election might receive the inheritance that belongeth unto the natural sons.
Bear ye one another's burden; and so fulfill the law of Christ.
and might be found in him, not having mine own righteousness which is of the law: But that which springeth of the faith which is in Christ. I mean, the righteousness which cometh of God through faith
and might be found in him, not having mine own righteousness which is of the law: But that which springeth of the faith which is in Christ. I mean, the righteousness which cometh of God through faith
Let no man make you shoot at a wrong mark, which after his own imagination walketh in the humbleness and holiness of angels, things which he never saw: causeless, puffed up with his fleshly mind,
And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a minister, to bear witness of those things which should be spoken afterward.
which was a similitude for the time then present, and in which were offered gifts and sacrifices that could not make them that minister perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;