Reference: Romans, The Epistle To The
AUTHENTICITY, GENUINENESS. Peter (2Pe 3:15-16) quotes Ro 2:4, calling it "Scripture." The epistles of Clement (Cor. 35) and Polycarp (ad Philippians 6) quote respectively Ro 1:29-32 and Ro 14:10-12. Irenaeus (iv. 27, section 2) quotes it as Paul's (Ro 4:10-11). Melito's "Hearing of Faith" is entitled from Romans 10 or Ga 3:2-3. The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. Haer. 99; Ro 1:20-26); Basilides (238, Ro 8:19-22; 5:13-14); Valentinus (195, Ro 8:11); the Valentinians Heracleon and Ptolemaeus; Tatian (Orat. 4, Ro 1:20), and Marcion's canon. The epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eusebius, H. E. v. 1; Ro 8:18); Athenagoras (13, Ro 12:1,21; 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol. 79, Ro 2:6,29; 13:7-8). Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it.
DATE AND PLACE OF WRITING. Paul wrote while at Corinth, for he commends to the Romans Phoebe, deaconess of Cenchreae, the port of Corinth (Ro 16:1-2). He was lodging at Gaius' house (Ro 16:23), a chief member of the Corinthian church (1Co 1:14). Erastus, "treasurer" ("chamberlain", KJV), belonged to Corinth (2Ti 4:20; Ac 19:22). The time was during his visit in the winter and spring following his long stay at Ephesus (Ro 16:27); for he was just about to carry the contributions of Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem (Ro 15:25-27; compare Ac 20:22), just after his stay at Corinth at this time (Ac 24:17; 1Co 16:4; 2Co 8:1-2; 9:1, etc.). His design of visiting Rome after Jerusalem (Ro 15:23-25) at this particular time appears incidentally from Ac 19:21. Thus, Paul wrote it in his third missionary journey, at the second of the two visas to Corinth recorded in Acts. He remained then three months in Greece.
He was on the point of sailing to Jerusalem when obliged to alter his purpose; the sea therefore was by this time navigable. It was not late in the spring, for, after passing through Macedon and visiting the coast of Asia Minor, he still expected to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Ac 20:16). He must therefore have written the epistle to the Romans early in spring, A.D. 58. Thus, it is logically connected with the epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians. He wrote 1 Corinthians before leaving Ephesus; 2 Corinthians on his way to Corinth; and Galatians at Corinth, where also he wrote Romans. Hence, the resemblance of these two epistles in style and substance. The epistle to the Galatians and the two almost contemporaneous epistles to the Corinthians are the most intense in feeling and varied in expression of Paul's epistles.
OCCASION. Intending long to visit Rome and Spain (Ro 1:9-13; 15:22-29), he was for the present unable, being bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians. But, as Phoebe a deaconess of the neighbouring Cenchreae was starting for Rome (Ro 16:1-2), he sends meantime this epistle by her. Tertius wrote it at his dictation (Ro 16:22), the apostle with his own hand, as in other epistles, probably adding the benediction and abrupt doxology at the close. Had Peter or any other apostle founded the church at Rome, some allusion to him would have occurred in this epistle or in Paul's epistles written at Rome. Moreover Paul's rule was not to build on another's foundation (Ro 15:20). Also in dividing the field of labour between himself and Peter (Ga 2:7-9), as apostle of the Gentiles he claims the Romans as his share (Ro 1:13) and hopes to confer some "spiritual gift" (charism) on them to establish them; implying that heretofore no apostle had been with them to do so (Ro 1:11; compare Ac 8:14-17).
The date of the introduction of Christianity at Rome must have been very early. Andronicus and Junia were "in Christ" even before Paul. Probably of the Roman strangers or pilgrim sojourners at Jerusalem (Ac 2:10) who heard Peter's sermon at Pentecost, some were among the converts, and brought back the gospel to the metropolis. (See RUFUS.) In this sense Peter founded the church at Rome, though having never yet visited it. The constant contact between Judaea and Rome through commerce, the passing of soldiers back and forward from Caesarea, and the repairing of Jewish settlers at Rome to Jerusalem for the three great feasts, ensured an early entrance of the gospel into Rome. Hence too at first the church there had that tinge of Judaism which this epistle corrects. Its members were in part Jews originally, in part Gentiles (compare as to the Jewish element Romans 2; Romans 3; Romans 7; Romans 9; Ro 11:13). A considerable number saluted in Romans 16 were Jew-Christians: Mary, Aquila, Priscilla, Andronicus and Junia, Paul's kinsmen, Herodion, Apelles, Aristobulus (of the Herodian family).
The Jews at Rome were so numerous that Augustus assigned them a separate quarter beyond the Tiber, and permitted them freely to exercise their religion (Philo, Leg. ad Caium, 568). That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Ro 1:5,13; 9:3-4; 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus manuscripts read for "Israel"), Ro 11:23,25,30. But the Gentiles of this church were not Latin, but Greek. The literature of the early Roman church was written in Greek; the names of its bishops are almost all Greek. The early Latin versions of the New Testament were made for the provinces, especially Africa, nor Rome. The names in the salutations (Romans 16) are generally Greek; and the Latin names, Aquila, Priscilla, Junia, Rufus, were Jews. Julia (of the imperial household), Amplias, and Urbanus, are the few exceptions.
The Greeks were the most enterprising and intelligent of the middle and lower classes at Rome. Juvenal alludes satirically to their numbers and versatility (iii. 60-80; vi. 184); their intellectual restlessness made them sit loosely to traditional superstitions, and to be more open than others to inquire into the claims of Christianity. Many of the names (Romans 16) are found in the lists of freedmen and slaves of the early Roman emperors, "they of Caesar's household" (Php 4:22). (See PALACE.) From the lower and middle classes, petty tradesmen, merchants, and army officers, the gospel gradually worked upward; still "not many wise ... mighty ... noble were called" (1Co 1:26). The legend of Peter and Paul presiding together over the church at Rome probably represents the combination of Jews and Gentiles in it. The joint episcopate of Linus and Cletus subsequently may be explained by supposing one ruled over the Jewish, the other over the Gentile congregation; this gives point to the general argument of Romans 1-3 and Ro 10:12, that there is no respect of nationality with God. Accordingly, the epistle has the character of a general treatise.
The metropolitan church was the fittest one to whom to address such a general exposition of doctrine, at the same time the injunction of obedience to temporal rulers was appropriate at the head quarters of the imperial government (Ro 13:1). The epistles to Corinthians and Galatians, immediately preceding chronologically, are full of personal references. The epistle to the Romans summarizes what he had just written; namely, epistle to Corinthians representing the attitude of the gospel to the Gentile world, the epistle to Galatians its relation to Judaism. What was in these two epistles immediately drawn out by special Judaizing errors of the Galatians, and Gentile licence of the Corinthians, is in Romans methodically combined together add arranged for general application.
The doctrine of justification by faith only on the one hand is stated (Romans 1-5) as in Galatians; on the other antinomianism is condemned (Romans 6); and the avoidance of giving offence as to meats (Romans 14) answers to 1Co 6:12, etc., 1Co 8:1, etc. Alexandrinus manuscript transposes the doxology Ro 16:25-27 (which Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts keep as KJV) to the close of Romans 14. Probably the epistle was circulated in two forms, both with and without the two last chapters. The form without them removed the personal allusions which manuscript G still more divested it
and Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya along Cyrene, and those Roman aliens, including Jews and proselytes,
Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Samaria has received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them, who, when they came down, prayed for them, so that they might receive Holy Spirit, read more. for it was not yet fallen upon any of them. They were only immersed in the name of the Christ Jesus. Then they laid hands on them, and they received Holy Spirit.
Now when these things were fulfilled, Paul decided in the spirit, after passing through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, having said, After becoming there, I must also see Rome. And having sent into Macedonia two of those who help him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while.
For Paul determined to sail past Ephesus, so that he might not happen to lose time in Asia. For he was hastening, if it were possible, for him to become at Jerusalem the day of Pentecost.
And now behold, I, bound in the spirit, am going to Jerusalem, not knowing the things that will happen to me in it,
Now after more years I came, going to make donations to my nation, and offerings,
Paul, a bondman of Jesus Christ, a called apostle separated for the good-news of God (which he fore-promised through his prophets in the holy scriptures) read more. concerning his Son who was made from the seed of David according to flesh. He who was designated Son of God in power, according to a spirit of holiness, from a resurrection of the dead--Jesus Christ our Lord-- through whom we received grace and apostleship for obedience of faith among all the nations on behalf of his name,
through whom we received grace and apostleship for obedience of faith among all the nations on behalf of his name, among which ye also are the called of Jesus Christ. read more. To all who are in Rome, beloved of God, to the called, to the sanctified: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
To all who are in Rome, beloved of God, to the called, to the sanctified: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Truly, I first express thanks to my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, that your faith is proclaimed in the whole world. read more. For God is my witness whom I serve in my spirit in the good-news of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers,
For God is my witness whom I serve in my spirit in the good-news of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you always in my prayers, pleading, if somehow now at last I will have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come to you.
pleading, if somehow now at last I will have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come to you. For I long to see you, so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, in order to establish you,
For I long to see you, so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, in order to establish you,
For I long to see you, so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, in order to establish you, and that is, to be mutually encouraged among you through each other's faith, both yours and mine.
and that is, to be mutually encouraged among you through each other's faith, both yours and mine. But I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that I often intended to come to you (and was prevented until now), so that I might have some fruit also among you, even as among the other Gentiles.
But I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that I often intended to come to you (and was prevented until now), so that I might have some fruit also among you, even as among the other Gentiles.
But I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that I often intended to come to you (and was prevented until now), so that I might have some fruit also among you, even as among the other Gentiles.
But I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that I often intended to come to you (and was prevented until now), so that I might have some fruit also among you, even as among the other Gentiles. I am debtor both to Greeks and to Barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish. read more. So the willingness is in me to preach the good-news also to you in Rome.
So the willingness is in me to preach the good-news also to you in Rome. For I am not ashamed of the good-news of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation to every man who believes, both to the Jew first, and to the Greek. read more. For the righteousness of God is revealed in it from faith for faith, just as it is written, And the righteous man will live from faith.
For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things made, both his eternal power and divinity, for them to be without excuse.
For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things made, both his eternal power and divinity, for them to be without excuse. Because, although knowing God, they did not glorify him as God, nor were they thankful, but became vain in their reasonings and their heart was darkened without understanding. read more. Professing to be wise, they became foolish, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image like corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed things, and creeping things. And for this reason God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, to degrade their bodies among themselves,
And for this reason God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, to degrade their bodies among themselves, who changed the truth of God into the lie, and worshiped and served the creation against him who created it, who is blessed into the ages. Truly. read more. Because of this God gave them up to shameful passions, for even their females changed the natural use into what is against nature.
having been filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; being gossips, slanderous, God-hating, aggressors, arrogant boasters, contrivers of evil things, disobedient to parents; read more. without understanding, untrustworthy, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful. Who, knowing the righteousness of God, that those who commit such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but also favor those who do.
Or do thou despise the wealth of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering, not knowing that the goodness of God guides thee to repentance?
who will render to each man according to his works,
but he is a Jew in what is hidden, and circumcision is of the heart, in spirit not a document, whose praise is not from men but from God.
What then is the advantage of the Jew? Or what is the benefit of circumcision? Much every way. First, because they were indeed entrusted with the oracles of God. read more. For what if some did not believe? Will their unbelief make the assurance of God ineffective? May it not happen! But let it come to pass God is true, but every man a liar, as it is written, That thou may ever be justified in thy words, and may prevail when thou are criticized. But if our unrighteousness commends the righteousness of God, what will we say? Is God unrighteous inflicting wrath? (I speak according to a man.) May it not happen! Otherwise how will God judge the world? For if by my lie, the truth of God abounded to his glory, why am I also still judged as sinful, and not (as we are slandered, and as some affirm us to say) that we may do evil so that good things may come (whose condemnation is just)? What then? Are we better? Not at all. For we already charged both Jews and Greeks to all be under sin, as it is written, There is no righteous man, not even one. There is no man who understands. There is no man who seeks God. All turned away. Together they became useless. There is not a man who does goodness; there is not as much as one. Their throat is an open grave. With their tongues they deceive. The poison of asps is under their lips, whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. Their feet are swift to shed blood. Destruction and misery are in their ways, and the way of peace they have not known. There is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that as many things as the law says, it says to those in the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become accountable to God. Because from works of law no flesh will be made right before him, for through law is knowledge of sin. But now a righteousness of God has been manifested independent of law, being witnessed by the law and the prophets. And the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ is for all and upon all those who believe, for there is no distinction. For all have sinned and come short of the glory of God, being made righteous freely by his grace, through the redemption in Christ Jesus, whom God set forth an expiatory sacrifice through faith in his blood, for proof of his justice, because of the passing over of the sins that have formerly occurred (in the forbearance of God), for proof of his justice at the present time, for him to be righteous, and who makes the man from Jesus' faith righteous. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what law, of works? No, but by a law of faith. We therefore consider a man to be made righteous by faith independent of works of law. Or is God of Jews only and not also of Gentiles? Yes, of Gentiles also, since God is one, who will make the man of circumcision righteous from faith, and the man of uncircumcision through faith. Do we then make law void through faith? May it not happen! Instead, we establish law.
How then was it reckoned? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. And he received the sign of circumcision, as a seal of the righteousness of his faith during uncircumcision, for him to be father of all those who believe during uncircumcision (for righteousness to also be imputed to them),
Therefore having been made righteous from faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have access by faith for this grace in which we stand, and we take pride in hope of the glory of God. read more. And not only so, but we also take pride in our tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance, and perseverance, character, and character, hope. And hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit that was given to us. For while we were yet weak, in due time Christ died for the impious. For scarcely for a righteous man will some man die, indeed perhaps for the good man some man would even dare to die. But God commends his love toward us, that, while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, now having been made righteous by his blood, we will be saved from the wrath through him. For if, while being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more having been reconciled we will be saved by his life. And not only so, but also taking pride in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. Because of this, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, so also death passed to all men, in that all sinned. For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.
For until law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who did not sin in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of the coming man.
Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who did not sin in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of the coming man. But in this way also, the gift is not as the transgression. For if by the trespass of the one man the many died, much more the grace of God, and the gift in grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded for the many. read more. And the gift is not as through one man who sinned, for indeed the judgment from one man was for condemnation, but the gift from many offenses is for righteousness. For if, by the offense of the one man, death reigned through the one man, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ. So then, as through an offense of one man was for condemnation for all men, so also through a righteousness of one man was for justification of life for all men. For as through the one man's disobedience the many were led sinful, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be led righteous. And the law entered so that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace was more abundant, so that, as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign, through righteousness, for eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up the Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit that dwells in you.
For I reckon that the sufferings of the present time are not comparable to the glory that is going to be revealed for us. For the eager expectation of the creation is waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God. read more. For the creation was made subject to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it in hope. Because the creation itself will also be freed from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation is groaning and travailing together until now.
For I wished I myself to be accursed from the Christ, for my brothers, my kinsmen according to flesh, who are Israelites, of whom is the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the lawgiving, and the divine service, and the promises,
Brothers, truly my heart's desire and my supplication to God for Israel is for salvation.
For there is no distinction of a Jew and also of a Greek, for the same Lord is of all men, being rich toward all those who call upon him.
For I speak to you the Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am indeed an apostle of Gentiles, I enhance my ministry,
And also those, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.
For I do not want you, brothers, to be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise according to yourselves, that a callousness in part has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles come in.
For as ye once were also disobedient to God, but now have received mercy at the disobedience of these,
I beseech you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, your reasonable service.
Be thou not overcome by evil, but overcome evil by good.
Let every soul be subject to offices of authority that rank higher, for there is no office of authority if not by God, and the offices of authority that are by God, are those that have been instituted.
Render therefore to all, the things due: tax to the man of tax, tribute to the man of tribute, fear to the man of fear, esteem to the man of esteem. Owe no man anything except to love each other, for he who loves the other has fulfilled law.
But why do thou criticize thy brother? Or also why do thou disdain thy brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For it is written, I live, says Lord, that every knee will bow to me, and every tongue will confess to God. read more. So then each of us will give account about himself to God.
And I also myself am persuaded about you, my brothers, that ye yourselves are also full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish others. But I wrote more boldly to you, brothers, in part, as reminding you because of the grace that was given to me by God, read more. for me to be a minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, serving the good-news of God like a priest, so that the offering up of the Gentiles might become acceptable, being sanctified in Holy Spirit. I have therefore a boast in Christ Jesus in things toward God. For I will not dare to speak anything of which Christ did not accomplish through me for the obedience of Gentiles, by word and work, in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of a spirit of God, so that for me, from Jerusalem and all around as far as Illyricum, to fully preach the good-news of Christ. And thus having aspired to proclaim the good-news not where Christ was already named, so that I would not build upon a foundation belonging to another man,
And thus having aspired to proclaim the good-news not where Christ was already named, so that I would not build upon a foundation belonging to another man, but, as it is written, They will see to whom it was not reported about him, and they will understand who have not heard. read more. Therefore also, I was delayed these many times coming to you.
Therefore also, I was delayed these many times coming to you. But now, having no more place in these regions, and having a great desire from many years to come to you,
But now, having no more place in these regions, and having a great desire from many years to come to you,
But now, having no more place in these regions, and having a great desire from many years to come to you, whenever I go to Spain I will come to you. For I hope to see you while passing through, and there to be helped on the way by you, if first I may be partly satisfied from you.
whenever I go to Spain I will come to you. For I hope to see you while passing through, and there to be helped on the way by you, if first I may be partly satisfied from you.
whenever I go to Spain I will come to you. For I hope to see you while passing through, and there to be helped on the way by you, if first I may be partly satisfied from you. But now I am going to Jerusalem serving the sanctified.
But now I am going to Jerusalem serving the sanctified.
But now I am going to Jerusalem serving the sanctified.
But now I am going to Jerusalem serving the sanctified. For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a certain participation for the poor of the sanctified at Jerusalem.
For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a certain participation for the poor of the sanctified at Jerusalem.
For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a certain participation for the poor of the sanctified at Jerusalem. For they were pleased. And they are debtors of them, for if the gentiles were partakers in their spiritual things, they are obligated also to serve them in the carnal things.
For they were pleased. And they are debtors of them, for if the gentiles were partakers in their spiritual things, they are obligated also to serve them in the carnal things.
For they were pleased. And they are debtors of them, for if the gentiles were partakers in their spiritual things, they are obligated also to serve them in the carnal things. Having therefore completed this, and having sealed this fruit for them, I will depart by you to Spain.
Having therefore completed this, and having sealed this fruit for them, I will depart by you to Spain. And I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the good-news of the Christ.
And I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the good-news of the Christ. Now I beseech you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to strive with me in prayers to God for me. read more. So that I may be rescued from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service for Jerusalem may become acceptable to the sanctified, so that I may come to you in joy through the will of God, and be rested with you. And the God of peace is with you all. Truly.
Now I commend to you our sister Phoebe who is a helper of the congregation at Cenchreae,
Now I commend to you our sister Phoebe who is a helper of the congregation at Cenchreae, so that ye may welcome her in Lord worthily of the sanctified, and that ye provide for her in whatever matter she may have need of you, for she also became a helper of many, and of me myself.
so that ye may welcome her in Lord worthily of the sanctified, and that ye provide for her in whatever matter she may have need of you, for she also became a helper of many, and of me myself.
I Tertius, the man who wrote the letter, salute you in Lord. Gaius my host, and of the whole congregation, salutes you. Erastus, the manager of the city, salutes you, and Quartus the brother.
Now to him who is able to establish you according to my good-news, and the preaching of Jesus Christ according to a revelation of the mystery that has been kept secret for eternal times, but that was now revealed, and by prophetic scriptures, according to a commandment of the eternal God that was made known to all the nations for obedience of faith, read more. to the only wise God through Jesus Christ, to whom is the glory into the ages. Truly.
to the only wise God through Jesus Christ, to whom is the glory into the ages. Truly.
I thank God that I immersed none of you except Crispus and Gaius,
For notice your calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to flesh, not many powerful, not many eminent.
All things are lawful for me, but not all things are expedient. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under control by anything.
Now about the things sacrificed to idols. We know that all have knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up.
but to the contrary, when they saw that I was entrusted with the good-news for men of uncircumcision, as Peter for men of circumcision (for he who was working in Peter for the apostleship for men of circumcision was also working in me for the Gentiles), read more. and James and Cephas and John, those who were reputed to be pillars, when they understood the grace that was given to me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship. So that we were for the Gentiles, and they for me
I only want to learn this from you. Did ye receive the Spirit from works of law, or from a listening ear of faith? Are ye so foolish, having begun in Spirit, are ye now made perfect by flesh?
Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, to the sanctified who are at Ephesus, and faithful in Christ Jesus:
All the sanctified salute you, and especially those of the house of Caesar.
Erastus remained at Corinth, but Trophimus I left being sick at Miletus.
And consider the longsuffering of our Lord, salvation, just as also our beloved brother Paul wrote to you according to the wisdom given to him, as also in all his letters, speaking in them about these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist, as also the other scriptures, to their own destruction.