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Reference: Adam (1)


("red earth".) The name given by God to the first man, to remind him of his earthly nature; whereas Ish was the name whereby he designates himself, a man of earth (as opposed to Enosh "a man of low degree" Ps 62:9) (Ge 2:23). The Hebrew Adam never assumes any change to mark the dual or plural numbers, men. Probably the Syro-Arabian is the primitive tongue, whence sprang the Hebrew and other so-called Shemitic tongues. The names in Genesis are therefore essentially the same as were actually spoken. Adam's naming of the animals in Eden implies that God endued Adam with that power of generalization based on knowledge of their characteristics, whereby he classified those of the same kinds under distinctive appellations, which is the fundamental notion of human language.

Its origin is at once human and divine. divine, in that "God brought" the animals "to Adam to see what he would call them," and enabled him to know intuitively their characteristics, and so not at random or with arbitrary appellations, but with such as marked the connection (as all the oldest names did, when truth logical and moral coincided) between the word and the thing, to name them; human, in that Adam, not God, was the name. "He did not begin with names, but with the power of naming; for man is not a mere speaking machine; God did not teach him words, as a parrot, from without, but gave him a capacity, and then evoked the capacity which He gave." (Abp. Trench.)

As the crown of creation, he was formed at the close of the sixth day. Adam came into the world a full grown man, with the elements of skill and knowledge sufficient to maintain his lordship over nature. The Second Adam came as an infant by humiliation to regain for man his lost lordship. Original records are perhaps traceable as employed in the inspired record of Moses. Ge 1:1-2:3 is one concerning creation and man in a general summary. A second is Ge 2:4-4:26, treating in a more detailed way what was summarily given as to man (Genesis 1), his innocence, first sin, and immediate posterity. A third is Genesis 5:1 - 9:29, "the book of the generations of Adam," and especially of Noah.

But the theory of an Elohist author for Genesis 1, and a Jehovist author for Genesis 2, distinct from Moses, on the ground that ELOHIM is the divine name in Genesis 1, but JEHOVAH ELOHIM in Genesis 2, is untenable. Nay, the names are used in their respective places with singular propriety; for ELOHIM expresses the mighty God of creation, and is fitting in His relation to the whole world. (Genesis 1) But JEHOVAH, the unchanging I AM (Ex 6:3), in covenant with His people, always faithful to His promises to them, is just the name that the Spirit of God would suggest in describing His relation to man, once innocent, then fallen, then the object of an everlasting covenant of love. It is just one of the undesigned proprieties which confirm Scripture's divine origination, that the JEHOVAH of the covenant with the church is the ELOHIM of the world, and vice versa.

The Elohim in man's creation use anthropomorphic language, implying collective counsel: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness," Abp. Trench remarks: "The whole history of man, not only in his original creation, but also in his after restoration and reconstitution in the Son, is significantly wrapped up in this double statement; which is double for this very cause, that the divine mind did not stop at the contemplation of his first creation but looked on to him as renewed in knowledge after the image of Him that created him (Col 3:10); because it knew that only as partaker of this double benefit would he attain the true end for which he was made." In 1Co 11:7 man is called "the image and glory of God." This ideal is realized fully in the Son of man (Ps 8:4-5). Man is both the "image" (Greek eikon, Hebrew tzelem)), and made in the "likeness" (Greek homoiosis, Hebrew demuth) of God (Jas 3:9). "Image" (eikon) alone is applied to the Son of God (Col 1:15); compare Heb 1:3, "the express image of His person" (Greek character, the impress). Eicon, "image," presupposes a prototype, as the monarch is the prototype and his head on the coin the image.

But "likeness" implies mere resemblance. Thus the "image" of God remains in some degree after the fall (Ge 9:6; Jas 3:9; 1Co 11:7). The likeness of God is what we are to be striving toward. The archetype is in God; man in his ideal is molded after the model realized in the Son of Man, "the image of the invisible God, the Firstborn of every creature," the incarnate God, already existing in the divine point of view (Col 1:15), with body and animal life akin to the animal world, yet the noble temple of an immortal spirit, with reason, imagination, freewill finding its true exercise in conformity to God's will, and a spiritual nature resembling God's, reflecting God's truth, righteousness, and love; capable of reasoning in the abstract which the lower animals cannot, as they have no general signs for universal ideas.

Some indeed, as the parrot, can frame articulate sounds, but they have not the power to abstract ideas from the particular outward objects, so as to generalize; as their want of a general language proves. Man is the interpreter of nature's inarticulate praises to nature's God. The uniformity of type in the animal kingdom, including man in his bodily nature, and the affinity of structure in the homologous bones, are due not to development from a common parentage, but to the common archetype in the divine mind, of which the cherubim was probably an ideal representation. When man fell, he still is called "in the image of God," with a view to his future restoration in the God-man. It is a "palace" in God's design, for a while spoiled by the "strong man" Satan, but to be reinstated by the "stronger" Man with God's archetypal image and likeness more vividly than ever standing forth (Lu 11:21).

Adam is the generic term for man, including woman (Ge 1:26-27). Christ came to reveal not only God, but MAN to us; He alone is therefore called "THE Son of man"; the common property of mankind; who alone realizes the original ideal of man: body, soul, and spirit, in the image and likeness of God, the body subordinate to the animal and intellectual soul, and the soul to the spirit (1Th 5:23), combining at once the man and woman (Ga 3:28); and in whom believers shall realize it by vital union with Him: having the masculine graces, majesty, power, wisdom, strength, courage, with all woman's purity, intuitive tact, meekness, gentleness, sympathetic tenderness and love, such as Roman Catholics have pictured in the Virgin Mary. So the first Adam, the type, combined both (Ge 1:27). The creation of woman from man (marked by the very names isha, ish) subsequently implies the same truth.

The Second Adam combined in Himself, as Representative Head of redeemed men and women, both man's and woman's characteristic excellencies, as the first Adam contained both before that Eve was taken out of his side. Her perfect suitableness for him is marked by Jehovah's words, "I will make for him a help suitable as before him," according to his front presence: a helping being in whom, as soon as he sees her, he may recognize himself (Delitzsch). The complement of man. So the bride, the church, is formed out of the pierced side of Christ the Bridegroom, while in the death sleep; and, by faith vitally uniting her to Him in His death and His resurrection, is "bone of His bone, and flesh of His flesh" (Eph 5:25-32.)

The dominion which Adam was given as God's vicegerent over the lower world, but lost by sin, is more than regained for man in the person of Christ. Even in His humiliation He exercised unlimited sway over man's bodily diseases and even death itself, over vegetable nature (the fig tree), the dumb animal kingdom (the ass's colt), the inorganic world, the restless sea, and the invisible world of demons; compare Psalm

8. In His manifested glory, His full dominion, and that of His redeemed with Him, shall be exercised over the regenerated earth: Isaiah 11; Isa 2:4; 65:25; 35:9-10; Psalm 72; Eze 34:25; Ho 2:18; Re 11:15-17,19; Revelation 21; Revelation

22. The first man Adam was made

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