1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
When they have a matter, they come in unto me, then do I judge between a man and his neighbour, - and make known the statutes of God and his laws.
Then said Yahweh unto Moses, Thus, shalt thou say, unto the sons of Israel, - Ye yourselves, have seen that out of the heavens, have I spoken with you.
then shall his lord bring him near unto God, and shall bring him near unto the door, or unto the door-post, - and his lord shall pierce his ear with an awl, so shall he serve him all his life.
When a man giveth unto his neighbour silver or jewelry, to keep, and it is stolen out of the house of the man:
they shall not dwell in thy land, lest they cause thee to sin against me, - for thou mightest serve their gods, verily! it would become to thee a snare!
Hear, O Israel: Yahweh, is our God, - Yahweh alone. Thou shalt therefore love Yahweh thy God, - with all thy heart and with all thy soul, and with all thy might;
So the king of Jericho sent unto Rahab, saying, - Bring forth the men that are come in unto thee who have entered thy house, for, to search out all the land, have they come.
If one man sin against another, God will interpose, but, if, against Yahweh, a man sin, who will intercede, for him? But they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, for Yahweh was pleased to put them to death.
Thus, saith Yahweh of hosts God of Israel, - Your ascending-offerings, add ye unto your peace-offerings and eat ye flesh. For I bade not your fathers Neither commanded I them, In the day I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, - Concerning the matter of ascending-offering and peace-offering;
Lo! days are coming, Declareth Yahweh, - When I will solemnize - With the house of Israel and With the house of Judah, A new covenant: Not like the covenant which I solemnised with their fathers, In the day when I grasped their hand, to bring them forth out of the land of Egypt, - In that, they, brake my covenant Though, I, had become a husband unto them, Declareth Yahweh. read more. For, this, is the covenant which I will solemnize with the house of Israel after those days Declareth Yahweh, I will put my law within them, Yea, on their heart, will I write it, - So will I become their God, And they shall become my people. Then shall they no longer teach Every man his neighbour, and Every man his brother, saying, Know ye Yahweh, - For, they all, shall know me, From the least of them Even unto the greatest of them, Declareth Yahweh, For I will forgive their iniquity, And their sin, will I remember, no more.
Round about, eighteen thousand. And the name of the city, from the day of Yahweh shall continue to be the name thereof.
I have been wont to write for him the myriad things of my law, - Like something alien, have they been accounted.
But let, justice, roll along like water, - and, righteousness, as a torrent over flowing. The sacrifices and meal-offering, ye brought near unto me, in the desert, for forty years O house of Israel; read more. But ye carried the tent of your king-idol, and your Saturn-images, - the star of your gods, which ye made for yourselves:
But Jesus answering, said unto him, Suffer me even now, - for, thus, it becometh us, to fulfil, all righteousness; then, he suffered him.
Do not think, that I came to pull down the law, or the prophets, - I came not to pull down, but to fulfil.
Do not think, that I came to pull down the law, or the prophets, - I came not to pull down, but to fulfil. For, verily, I say unto you, until the heaven and the earth shall pass away, one least letter, or one point, may in nowise pass away from the law, till all be accomplished.
For, verily, I say unto you, until the heaven and the earth shall pass away, one least letter, or one point, may in nowise pass away from the law, till all be accomplished.
For, verily, I say unto you, until the heaven and the earth shall pass away, one least letter, or one point, may in nowise pass away from the law, till all be accomplished. Whosoever, therefore, shall relax one of these commandments, the least, and teach men so, shall be called, least, in the kingdom of the heavens; but, whosoever shall do and teach, the same, shall be called, great, in the kingdom of the heavens. read more. For I say unto you, that, unless your righteousness exceed that of the Scribes and Pharisees, in nowise, may ye enter into the kingdom of the heavens. Ye have heard, that it was said, to them of olden time, - Thou shalt not commit murder, and, whosoever shall commit murder, shall be, liable, to judgment. But, I, say unto you, that, every one who is angry with his brother, shall be, liable, to judgment, - and, whosoever shall say to his brother, Worthless one!, shall be, liable, to the high council; and, whosoever shall say, Rebel!, shall be, liable, unto the fiery gehenna. If, therefore, thou be bearing thy gift towards the altar, and, there, shouldst remember that, thy brother, hath aught against thee, leave, there, thy gift before the altar, and withdraw, - first, be reconciled unto thy brother, and, then, coming, be offering thy gift. Be making agreement with thine adversary, quickly, while thou art with him, in the way, - lest once thine adversary deliver thee up unto the judge, and the judge, unto the officer, and, into prison, thou be cast. Verily, I say unto thee, In nowise, mayest thou come out from thence, until thou pay the last halfpenny. Ye have heard, that it was said, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But, I, say unto you, that, Every one who looketh on a woman so as to covet her, already, hath committed adultery with her, in his heart. And, if, thy right eye, is causing thee to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from thee, - for it profiteth thee, that, one of thy members, should perish, and not, thy whole body, be cast into gehenna. And, if, thy right hand, is causing thee to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from thee, - for it profiteth thee, that, one of thy members, should perish, and not, thy whole body, into gehenna, depart. It was said, moreover, Whosoever shall divorce his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement; But, I, say unto you, that, Everyone who divorceth his wife - saving for unfaithfulness, causeth her to be made an adulteress, - and, whosoever shall marry a divorced woman, committeth adultery. Again, ye have heard that it was said, to them of olden time, Thou shalt not swear falsely, - but shalt render unto the Lord, thine oaths. But, I, tell you - not to swear, at all: Neither by heaven, because it is the, throne of God, - Nor by the earth, because it is his, footstool; nor by Jerusalem, because, it is the, city, of the Great King; Nor, by thine own head, mayest thou swear, because thou art not able to make, one hair, white or black. But let your word be, Yea, yea, - Nay, nay; and, what goeth beyond these, is, of evil. Ye have heard, that it was said, - Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth. But, I, tell you, not to resist evil, - Nay, whoever is smiting thee on the right cheek, turn to him, the other also; And, him who is desiring thee to be judged, and to take, thy tunic, let him have, thy mantle also. And, whoever shall impress thee one mile, go with him two: To him who is asking thee, give; and, him who is desiring from thee to borrow, do not thou turn away. Ye have heard, that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But, I, say unto you, Be loving your enemies, and praying for them who are persecuting you: That ye may become sons of your Father who is in the heavens: because, his sun, he maketh arise on evil and good, and sendeth rain, on just and unjust. For, if ye love them that love you, what reward have ye? are not, even the tax-collectors, the same thing, doing? And, if ye salute your brethren only, what, more than common, are ye doing? are not, even the nations, the same thing, doing? Ye, therefore, shall become, perfect: as, your heavenly Father, is perfect.
And it came to pass, when Jesus ended these words, with astonishment were the multitudes being struck at his teaching;
And Jesus saith unto him, Mind! tell, no one, - but withdraw, thyself, shew to the priest, and offer the gift which Moses directed, for a witness unto them.
Or have ye not read, in the law, that, on the sabbaths, the priests, in the temple, the sabbath, profane, and are, blameless? But I say unto you, - Something greater than the Temple, is here!
And said unto them, What man, from among yourselves, shall there be, - Who shall have one sheep, and, if this should fall, on the sabbath, into a pit, will not lay hold of it, and raise it?
But, if, in God's Spirit, I, am casting out the demons, then doubtless hath come upon you unawares, the kingdom of God! Or how can one enter the house of the mighty and, seize his goods, unless, first, he bind the mighty one? and, then, his house, he will plunder. read more. He that is no with me, is, against me, - and, he that gathereth not with me, scattereth
The queen of the south, will arise in the judgment with this generation and will condemn it - because she came out of the ends of the earth, to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and lo! something greater than Solomon, here.
But, he, answering, said, I was not sent forth, save unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
But, that we may not cause them to stumble, go unto the sea, and cast in a hook, and, the first fish that cometh up, take, and, opening its mouth, thou shalt find a shekel, - that, take, and give to them for me and thee.
And there came unto him Pharisees, testing him, and saying, - Whether is it allowed a man to divorce his wife, for every cause? And, he, answering, said - Did ye never read - He who created at the beginning, Male and female, made them, - read more. and said - For this cause, will a man leave his father and his mother, and be united to his wife, - and, the two, will become, one flesh; So that, the longer, are they, two, but, one flesh, What, therefore, God, hath yoked together, Let not, a man, put asunder. They say unto him - Why then did, Moses, command, to give a writing of repudiation and to divorce? He saith unto them - Moses, in view of your hardness of heart, permitted you to divorce your wives; From the beginning however, hath it not been done, thus. And I say unto you - Whosoever shall divorce his wife, saving for unfaithfulness, and shall marry another, committeth adultery.
Just as, the Son of Man, came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom instead of many.
Now, the Pharisees, hearing that he had silenced the Sadducees, were brought together with one accord; and one from among them, a lawyer, proposed a question, putting him to the test: read more. Teacher! which commandment, is greatest in the law? And, he, said unto him - Thou shalt love the Lord thy God - with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind: This, is the great and first commandment. The second, like it, is, this: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. In these two commandments, all the law, is contained, and the prophets.
For, this, is my blood of the covenant, which, for many, is to be poured out, for remission of sins.
And it came to pass, that he, on the Sabbath, was passing through the cornfields, and his disciples began to be going forward, plucking the ears of corn. And, the Pharisees, were saying, - See! why are they doing, on the Sabbath, what is not allowed? read more. And he saith unto them - Have ye never read what David did, when he had need and hungered, - he, and they who were with him: howhe entered into the house of God, while Abiathar was High-priest, and, the presence-bread, did eat, - which it is not allowed to eat, save unto the priests, - and gave, unto them also who were with him? And he was saying unto them - The Sabbath, for man, was made, and not, man, for, the Sabbath:
And he was saying unto them - The Sabbath, for man, was made, and not, man, for, the Sabbath: So that the Son of Man is, Lord, even of the Sabbath.
and they were narrowly watching him, whether, on the Sabbath, he would cure him, that they might accuse him.
But, in vain, do they pay devotions unto me, teaching for teachings, the commandments of men; Having, dismissed, the commandment, of God, ye, hold fast, the tradition, of men. read more. And he was saying to them - Well, do ye set aside the commandment of God, that, your own tradition, ye may observe; For, Moses, said - Honour thy father and thy mother, and - He that revileth father or mother, let him, surely die, - But, ye, say - If a man shall say to his father or his mother, Korban! that is, A gift, whatsoever, out of me, thou mightest be profited, no longer, do ye suffer him to do, aught, for his father or his mother, - cancelling the word of God by your tradition which ye have delivered. And, many such similar things, are ye doing! And, again calling near the multitude, he was saying unto them - Hearken to me, all! and understand: Nothing, is there, from without the man, entering into him, which can defile him; but, the things which, out of the man, come forth, are the things that defile the man.
And, when he entered into a house from the multitudes, his disciples began to question him as to the parable; And he saith unto them - Thus, are, ye also, without discernment? Perceive ye not that, nothing, from without, entering into the man, can defile him; read more. because it entereth not into his heart, but into his stomach, and, into the draught, is passed - purifying all foods?
because it entereth not into his heart, but into his stomach, and, into the draught, is passed - purifying all foods? And he was saying - That which, out of the man, cometh forth, that, defileth the man; read more. For, from within, out of the heart of men, the base designs, come forth, - fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, covetousnesses, knaveries, deceit, wantonness, an evil eye, profane speaking, foolishness, - all these wicked things, from within, come forth, and defile, the man.
But, he, was silent, and answered, nothing. Again, the High-priest was questioning him, and saith unto him - Art, thou, the Christ the Son of the Blessed?
And, when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising him, then was his name called, Jesus, - which it was called by the messenger, before he was conceived in the womb.
And there was handed to him a scroll of the prophet Isaiah; and unfolding the scroll, he found the place where it was written: The Spirit of the Lord, is upon me, because he hath anointed me - to tell glad tidings unto the destitute; He hath sent me forth, - To proclaim, to captives, a release, and, to the blind, a recovering of sight, - to send away the crushed, with a release; read more. To proclaim the welcome year of the Lord. And, folding up the scroll, he handed it to the attendant, and sat down; and, the eyes of all, in the synagogue, were intently fixed upon him; and he began to be saying to them - This day, is fulfilled this scripture, in your ears.
And lo! a certain lawyer, arose, putting him to the test, saying - Teacher! by doing what, shall I inherit, life age-abiding? And, he, said unto him - In the law, what is written? how dost thou read? read more. And, he, answering, said - Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, out of all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might, and with all thine intention; and thy neighbour, as thyself? And he said unto him - Rightly, hast thou answered: This, do, and thou shalt live. But, he, wishing to justify himself, said unto Jesus - And, who is, my, neighbour? And taking up the question , Jesus said - A certain man, was going down from Jerusalem unto Jericho, and, with robbers, fell in, - who, stripping him, and inflicting, wounds, upon him, departed, leaving him, half dead. And, by chance, a certain priest, was coming down by that road, and, seeing him, passed by, on the opposite side. And, in like manner, a Levite also, coming down to the place, and seeing him, passed by, on the opposite side. But, a certain Samaritan, going on his journey, came down to him, and, seeing him, was moved with compassion; and, coming near, bound up his bruises, pouring thereon oil and wine, - and, setting him on his own beast, brought him into an inn, and took care of him. And, on the morrow, throwing out two denaries, he gave them to the inn-keeper, and said - Take care of him, and, whatsoever thou shall further spend, I, when on my way back, will duly pay thee. Which of these three, seemeth unto thee to have become, neighbour, unto him who fell among the robbers? And, he, said - He who dealt mercifully with him. And Jesus said unto him - Be taking thy journey, and, thou, be doing, in like manner.
And, when he had spoken, a Pharisee was requesting him that he would dine with him; and, entering, he reclined. And, the Pharisee, beholding, marvelled that he was not, first, immersed, before the dinner. read more. And the Lord said unto him: Now, ye, the Pharisees, the outside of the cup and of the tray, do make pure; but, your inward part, is full of plunder and wickedness. Simple ones! Did not, he who made the outside, the inside also, make? Notwithstanding, as to the things within, give alms, and lo! everything, is, pure unto you.
But, this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound, lo! eighteen years, was there not a needs-be that she should be loosed from this bond, on the day of rest? And, as he was saying, these, things, all who had been setting themselves against him were being put to shame; and, all the multitude, were rejoicing over all the glorious things which were being brought to pass by him.
The law and the prophets, were until John, - from that time, the good news of the kingdom of God, is being proclaimed, and, everyone, thereinto, is forcing his way.
For I say unto you - This that is written, must needs be completed in me, - And, with lawless ones, was he reckoned; for, even that which concerneth me, hath, completion.
And, beginning from Moses, and from all the prophets, he thoroughly explained to them, in all the Scriptures, the things concerning himself.
Because, the law, through Moses, was given, favour and truth, through Jesus Christ, came into existence.
Because, the law, through Moses, was given, favour and truth, through Jesus Christ, came into existence.
And, just as, Moses, lifted up the serpent in the desert, so, must, the Son of Man, be lifted up, -
And, straightway, the man was made well and took up his couch, and began to walk. Now it was Sabbath, on that day. The Jews, therefore, were saying, unto him who had been cured - It is, Sabbath; and it is not allowable for thee to take up thy couch: - read more. who, however, answered them - He that made me well, he, unto me, said - Take up thy couch, and be walking. They questioned him - Who is the man that said unto thee, Take up thy couch , and be walking? But, the healed one, knew not, who, it was; for, Jesus, had turned aside, a multitude, being in the place. After these things, Jesus findeth him, in the temple, and said unto him - See! thou hast become, well: - No more, be committing sin, lest, some worse thing, do thee befall. The man went away, and told the Jews, that it was, Jesus, who had made him well. And, on this account, were the Jews persecuting Jesus, because, these things, he had been doing, on Sabbath. But, he, answered them - My Father, until even now, is working; and, I, am working. On this account, therefore, the rather, were the Jews seeking to slay him, - because, not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but was calling God, his own Father, making, himself, equal, with, God. Jesus, therefore, answered, and went on to say unto them - Verily, verily, I say unto you: The Son cannot be doing, of himself, a single thing, - save anything he may see, the Father, doing; for, whatsoever, he, may be doing, these things, the Son also, in like manner, doeth. For, the Father, dearly loveth the Son, and, all things, pointeth out to him, which, himself, is doing; and, greater works than these, will he point out to him, that, ye, may marvel.
It is written in the prophets, - And they shall be, all, the instructed of God: Every one who hath heard of the Father, and learned, cometh unto me.
I, am the living bread, which, out of heaven, came down: If one eat of this bread, he shall live unto times age-abiding; and, the bread, moreover, which, I, will give, is, my flesh - for the world's life.
Surely, thou, art not, greater, than our father Abraham, - who, indeed, died? and, the prophets, died: - Whom, makest thou thyself?
Certain from among the Pharisees, therefore, were saying - This man is not, from God, because, the Sabbath, he keepeth not. Others, howeverwere saying - How can a sinful man, such signs as these, be doing? And there was, a division, among them.
So they called the man a second time - him who had been blind, and said unto him - Give glory unto God! We know that, this man, is, a sinner.
Jesus answered them - Is it not written in your law: I, said, Ye are, gods?
But, a certain one from among them, Caiaphas, being, High-priest, for that year, said unto them - Ye, know, nothing at all;
Verily! Verily, I say unto you: Except, the kernel of wheat, shall fall into the ground, and die, it, alone, abideth; but, if it die, much fruit, it beareth.
The multitude, therefore, answered him - We, have heard, out of the law, that, the Christ, abideth evermore; How then dost, thou, say, - It behoveth the Son of Man to be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man?
But -- that the word which, in their law, is written, might be fulfilled - They hated me without cause.
The Jews answered him - We, have, a law, and, according to the law, he ought to die, because, Son of God, himself, he made.
Be it known unto you, therefore, brethren, - that, through this man, unto you, remission of sins is declared;
What then shall we say - as touching Abraham our forefather? For, if Abraham by works was declared righteous, he hath whereof to boast; - nevertheless, not towards God, - read more. For what doth the Scripture say? And Abraham believed in God, and it was reckoned unto him as righteousness. Now, unto him that worketh, the reward is not reckoned by way of favour but by way of obligation, Whereas, unto him that worketh not but believeth on him that declareth righteous the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness.
Law, however, gained admission, in order that the fault might abound, but, where the sin abounded, the favour greatly superabounded:
What, then, shall we say? Is the law sin? Far be it! On the contrary, I had not discovered, sin, save through law, for even, of coveting, I had not been aware if, the law, had not kept on saying - Thou shall not covet; Howbeit sin taking, occasion - through the commandment, wrought out in me all manner of coveting; for, apart from law, sin is dead; - read more. And, I, was alive, apart from law, at one time, but, the commandment coming, sin sprang up to life, Whereas, I, died, - and the commandment which was unto life was found by me to be, itself, unto death; For, sin, - taking occasion - through the commandment, completely deceived me and, through it, slew me: So that, the law, indeed, is holy, and the commandment, holy, and righteous and good.
So that, the law, indeed, is holy, and the commandment, holy, and righteous and good. Did, then, that which is good, unto me become death? Far be it! But it was sin, that it might appear sin, through that which was good unto me working out death, in order that, exceeding sinful, might sin become through the commandment.
Did, then, that which is good, unto me become death? Far be it! But it was sin, that it might appear sin, through that which was good unto me working out death, in order that, exceeding sinful, might sin become through the commandment. For we know that, the law, is spiritual, - I, however, am a creature of flesh, sold under sin; read more. For, that which I am working out, I do not approve, - for not, what I wish, the same I practise, but, what I hate, the same I do: Now, if what I wish not the same I do, I consent unto the law that it is right. Now, however, no longer am, I, working it out, but the, sin, that dwelleth in me: I know, in fact, that there dwelleth not in me, that is, in my flesh, anything good; for, the wishing, lieth near me, but, the working out of what is right, not! For not, the good that I wish, I do, but, the evil that I do not wish, the same I practise. Now, if what I wish not, the same, I do, no longer am, I, working it out, but the, sin, that dwelleth in me. Hence, I find the law, to me who wish to be doing the right, that, unto me, the wrong lieth near: I have, in fact, a sympathetic pleasure in the law of God; according to the inner man. But I behold a diverse law in my members, warring against the law of my mind and taking me captive in the law of sin which existeth in my members: - Wretched, man am, I! Who shall rescue me out of this body doomed to death?
For, the-law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus, hath set thee free from the law of sin and of death; - For, what was impossible by the law in that it was weak through the flesh, God, by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, condemned sin in the flesh,
Whereas, Israel, though in pursuit of a law of righteousness, unto a law, have not attained.
For, not knowing God's righteousness and, their own, seeking to establish, unto the righteousness of God, have they not submitted;
To the married, however, I give charge - not, I, but the Lord, - that, a wife, from her husband, do not depart, -
But have renounced the hidden things of shame, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully, - but, by the manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves unto every conscience of men, in the sight of God.
For, I, through means of law, unto law, died, that, unto God, I might live: -
Is, the law, then, against the promises of God? Far be it! For, if a law had been given, which had been able to give life, verily, in law, would have been our righteousness;
So that, the law, hath proved, our tutor, training us, for Christ, in order that, by faith, we might be declared righteous;
But I say: - for as long a time as, the heir, is an infant, he differeth, nothing, from a servant, though, lord of all, But is, under guardians, and stewards, until the day fore-appointed of the father: read more. So also, we, when we were infants, under the elementary principles of the world, were held in servitude; But, when the fulness of the time came, God sent forth his Son, who came to be of a woman, who came to be under law, -
But, when the fulness of the time came, God sent forth his Son, who came to be of a woman, who came to be under law, - That, them who were under law, he might redeem, that, the sonship, we might duly receive; -
One another's burdens, be ye bearing, and, so, fill up the law of the Christ.
And be found in him - not having a righteousness of my own, that which is by law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is, of God, upon my faith, -
And be found in him - not having a righteousness of my own, that which is by law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is, of God, upon my faith, -
Let, no one, against you, be arbitrating, however wishful, - in respect of lowliness of mind, and of a religious observance of the messengers: upon what things he hath seen, taking his stand, in vain, puffed up by his carnal mind, -
Even Moses, indeed, was faithful in all his house, as an attendant, for a witness of the things which were to be spoken;
The which is a similitude for the present season, according to which both gifts and sacrifices are offered, which cannot, as to the conscience, perfect him that rendereth the divine service: -