Reference: New Testament
(Lu 22:20), rather "New Covenant," in contrast to the old covenant of works, which is superseded. "The covenant of grace is called new; it succeeds to the old broken covenant of works. It is ever fresh, flourishing, and excellent; and under the gospel it is dispensed in a more clear, spiritual, extensive, and powerful manner than of old" (Brown of Haddington). Hence is derived the name given to the latter portion of the Bible. (See Testament.)
And in the same way with the cup, after supper, saying: "This cup is the New Covenant made by my blood which is being poured out on your behalf.]
(See BIBLE; CANON; INSPIRATION.) hee kainee diatheekee. See Heb 9:15-17; 8:6-13. The Greek term diateeeekee combines the two ideas "covenant" and "testament," which the KJV gives separately, though the Greek is the same for both. "Covenant" expresses its obligatory character, God having bound Himself by promise (Ga 3:15-18; Heb 6:17-18). "Testament" expresses that, unlike other covenants, it is not a matter of bargaining, but all of God's grace, just as a testator has absolute power to do what he will with his own. Jesus' death brings the will of God in our favor into force. The night before His death He said "I appoint unto you by testamentary disposition (diatitheemi) a kingdom" (Lu 22:29). There was really only one Testament - latent in the Old Testament, patent in the New Testament. The disciples were witnesses of the New Testament, and the Lord's Supper was its seal. The Old and New Testament Scriptures are the written documents containing the terms of the will.
TEXT. The "Received Text" (i.e. the "Textus Receptus" or TR) is that of Robert Stephens' edition. Bentley (Letter to Wake in 1716 A.D.) said truly, "after the Complutenses and Erasmus, who had very ordinary manuscripts, the New Testament became the property of booksellers. R. Stephens' edition, regulated by himself alone, has now become as if an apostle were its compositor. I find that by taking 2,000 errors out of the Pope's Vulgate (i.e. correcting by older Latin manuscripts the edition of Jerome's Vulgate put forth by Sixtus V, A.D. 1590, with anathemas against any who should alter it 'in minima particula,' and afterwards altered by Clement VIII (1592) in 2,000 places in spite of Sixtus' anathema) and as many out of the Protestant pope Stephens' edition, I can set out an edition of each (Latin, Vulgate, and Greek text) in columns, without using any book under 900 years old, that shall so exactly agree word for word, and order for order, that no two tallies can agree better. ... These will prove each other to a demonstration, for I alter not a word of my own head."
The first printed edition of the Greek Testament was that in the Complutensian Polyglot, January, 10, 1514 A.D. Scripture was known in western Europe for many ages previously only through the Latin Vulgate of Jerome. F. Ximenes de Cisneros, of Toledo, undertook the work, to celebrate the birth of Charles V. Complutum (Alcala) gave the name. Lopez de Stunica was chief of its New Testament editors. The whole Polyglot was completed the same year that Luther affixed his 95 theses against indulgences to the door of the church at Wittenberg. Leo X lent the manuscripts used for it from the Vatican. It follows modern Greek manuscripts in all cases where these differ from the ancient manuscripts and from the oldest Greek fathers. The Old Testament Vulgate (the translation which is authorized by Rome) is in the central column, between the Greek Septuagint and the Hebrew (the original); and the editors compare the first to Christ crucified between the impenitent (the Hebrew) and the penitent (the Greek) thief!
Though there is no Greek authority for 1Jo 5:7, they supplied it and told Erasmus that the Latin Vulgate's authority outweighs the original Greek! They did not know that the oldest copies of Jerome's Vulgate omit it; the manuscript of Wizanburg of the eighth century being the oldest that contains it. Owing to the Complutensian Greek New Testament not being published, though printed, until the Polyglot was complete, Erasmus' Greek New Testament was the first published, namely, by Froben a printer of Basle, March 1516, six years before the Complutensian. The providence of God at the dawn of the Reformation thus furnished earnest students with Holy Scripture in the original language sanctioned by the Holy Spirit. Erasmus completed his edition in haste, and did not have the scruples to supply, by translating into Greek front the Vulgate, both actual hiatuses in his Greek manuscripts and what he supposed to be so, especially in the Apocalypse, for which he had only one mutilated manuscript.
To the outcry against hint for omitting the testimony of the three heavenly witnesses he replied, it is not omission but non-addition; even some Latin copies do not have it, and Cyril of Alexandria showed in his Thesaurus he did not know it; on the Codex Montfortianus (originally in possession of a Franciscan, Froy, who possibly wrote it, now in Trinity College, Dublin) being produced with it, Erasmus INSERTED it. So clumsily did the translator of the Vulgate Latin into Greek execute this manuscript that he neglects to put the necessary Greek article before "Father," "Word," and" Spirit." Erasmus' fifth edition is the basis of our "Received Text." In 1546 and 1549 R. Stephens printed two small editions at Paris, and in 1550 a folio edition, following Erasmus' fifth edition almost exclusively, and adding in the margin readings from the Complutensian edition and from 15 manuscripts collected by his son Henry, the first large collection of readings. The fourth edition at Geneva, 1551, was the first divided into modern verses. Beza next edited the Greek New Testament, generally following Stephens' text, with a few changes on manuscript authority.
He possessed the two famous manuscripts, namely, the Gospels and Acts, now by his gift in the university of Cambridge; "Codex Bezae" or "Cantabrigiensis," D; and the epistles of Paul, "Codex Clermontanus" (brought from Clermont), now in the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris; both are in Greek and Latin. The Elzevirs, printers at Leyden, published two editions, the first in 1624, the second in 1633, on the basis of R. Stephens' third edition, with corrections from Beza's. The unknown editor, without stating his critical principles, gravely declares in the preface: "texture habes ab omnibus receptum, in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus"; stranger still, the public for two centuries has accepted this so-called "Received Text" as if infallible. When textual criticism was scarcely understood, theological convenience accepted it as a compromise between the Roman Catholic Complutensian edition and the Protestant edition of Stephens and Beza. Mill (1707) has established Stephens' as the Received Text in England; on the continent the Elzevir is generally recognized.
Thus, an uncritical Greek text of publishers has been for ages submitted to by Protestants, though abjuring blind assent to tradition, and laughing at the claim to infallibility of the two popes who declared each of two diverse editions of the Vulgate to be exclusively authentic. (The council of Trent, 1545, had pronounced the Latin Vulgate to be the authentic word of God). Frequent handling and transmission soon destroyed the originals. If the autographs of the inspired writers had been preserved, textual criticism would not have been necessary. But the oldest MSS, existing, Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph) Codex Vaticanus (B), Codex Alexandrinus (A), are not older than the fourth century. Parchment was costly (2Ti 4:13). Papyrus paper which the sacred writers used (2Jo 1:12; 3Jo 1:13) was fragile. No superstitious or antiquarian interest was felt in the autographs which copies superseded. The Diocletian persecution (A.D. 303) attacked the Scriptures, and traditores (Augustine, 76, section 2) gave them up.
Constantine ordered 50 manuscripts to be written on fair skins for the use of the church. God has not seen fit (by a perpetual miracle) to preserve the text from transcriptional errors. Having by extraordinary revelation once bestowed the gift, He leaves its preservation to ordinary laws, yet by His secret providence furnishes the church, its guardian and witness, with the means to ensure its accuracy in all essentials (Ro 3:2). Criticism does not make variations, but finds them, and turns them into means of ascertaining approximately the original text. More materials exist for restoring the genuine text of New Testament than for that of any ancient work. Whitby attacked Mill for presenting in his edition 30,000 various readings found in manuscripts. Collins, the infidel, availed himself of Whitby's unsound argument that textual variations render Scripture uncertain.
But about that Day and Hour, no one knows--not even the angels of Heaven, nor yet the Son--but only the Father himself.
But at midnight a shout was raised--'The Bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!'
And very early on the first day of the week they went to the tomb, after sunrise. They were saying to one another: "Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance of the tomb?" read more. But, on looking up, they saw that the stone had already been rolled back; it was a very large one. Going into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on their right, in a white robe, and they were dismayed; But he said to them:
And, just as my Father has assigned me a Kingdom, I assign you places,
Great in every way. First of all, because the Jews were entrusted with God's utterances.
Foolish Galatians! Who has been fascinating you--you before whose very eyes Jesus Christ was depicted upon the cross?
To take an illustration, Brothers, from daily life--No one sets aside even an agreement between two men, when once it has been confirmed, nor does he add conditions to it. Now it was to Abraham that the promises were made, 'and to his offspring.' It was not said 'to his offsprings,' as if many persons were meant, but the words were 'to thy offspring,' showing that one person was meant--and that was Christ. read more. My point is this--An agreement already confirmed by God cannot be canceled by the Law, which came four hundred and thirty years later, so as to cause the promise to be set aside. If our heritage is the result of Law, then it has ceased to be the result of a promise. Yet God conferred it on Abraham by a promise.
Bring with you, when you come, the cloak which I left at Troas with Carpus, and the books, especially the parchments.
And therefore God, in his desire to show, with unmistakable plainness, to those who were to enter on the enjoyment of what he had promised, the unchangeableness of his purpose, bound himself with an oath. For he intended us to find great encouragement in these two unchangeable things, which make it impossible for God to prove false--we, I mean, who fled for safety where we might lay hold on the hope set before us.
But Jesus, as we see, has obtained a ministry as far excelling theirs, as the Covenant of which he is the intermediary, based, as it is, on better promises, excels the former Covenant. If that first Covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion for a second. read more. But, finding fault with the people, God says-- '"Behold, a time is coming," says the Lord, "when I will ratify a new Covenant with the People of Israel and with the People of Judah-- Not such a Covenant as I made with their ancestors on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt. For they did not abide by their Covenant with me, And therefore I disregarded them," says the Lord. "This is the Covenant that I will make with the People of Israel After those days," says the Lord. "I will impress my laws on their minds, and will inscribe them on their hearts; And I will be their God, and they shall be my People. There shall be no need for every man to instruct his fellow-citizen, or for a man to say to his Brother 'Learn to know the Lord'; For every one will know me, From the lowest to the highest. For I will be merciful to their wrong-doings, And I will no longer remember their sins."' By speaking of a 'new' Covenant, God at once renders the former Covenant obsolete; and whatever becomes obsolete and loses its force is virtually annulled.
how much more will the blood of the Christ, who, through his eternal Spirit, offered himself up to God, as a victim without blemish, purify our consciences from a lifeless formality, and fit us for the service of the Living God! And that is why he is the intermediary of a new Covenant; in order that, as a death has taken place to effect a deliverance from the offenses committed under the first Covenant, those who have received the Call may obtain the eternal inheritance promised to them. read more. Whenever such a Covenant as a will is in question, the death of the testator must of necessity be alleged. For such a Covenant takes effect only upon death, it does not come into force as long as the testator is alive.
It is a three-fold testimony--
For the general contents of the New Testament see BIBLE. See also COVENANT. The chronology of the principal events recorded in the New Testament is given in the following tables, with approximate dates. The dates of the Epistles of Peter, James, John, and Jude are according to the A.V. For the date of the crucifixion see SEVENTY WEEKS: other dates are reckoned from that.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
27 Augustus emperor of Rome
6 Census in Judaea. Birth of John the Baptist
5 Birth of Jesus (Four full years before A.D.) Presentation in the temple.
4 Visit of the magi. Flight into Egypt, Massacre of infants. Death of Herod;
Archelaus made ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea
Herod Antipas tetrarch of Peraea and Galilee. Philip tetrarch of Ituraea, Trachonitis. etc.
6 Quirinis (Cyrenius) governor of Syria the second time
Archelaus banished, and Judaea made a province of Syria.
7 Enrolment, or taxation, under Cyrenius. Annas made high priest
8 Jesus at Jerusalem. Lu 2:42-46
Lu 2:14 Tiberias emperor of Rome: reigns alone
17 Caiaphas made high priest
26 Pontius Pilate procurator of Judaea
John commences his ministry. (See TIBERIUS.) Mr 1:1-11
Baptism of Jesus. The Temptation
Miracle of the water made wine at Cana. Joh 2:1-11
Jesus visits Capernaum
The first Passover. Jesus cleanses the temple. Joh 2:13-22
John cast into prison. Jesus preaches in Galilee Mr 1:14-15
Jesus at the synagogue at Nazareth: cast out of the city. Lu 4:16-30
Jesus visits the towns of Galilee Mr 1:38-39
The twelve Apostles chosen Mr 3:13-19
Sermon on the Mount. Matt. 5.- 7; Lu 6:17-49
Miracles in the land of the Gadarenes. Mr 5:1-20
The Jews offended at Jesus at Nazareth. Mr 6:1-5
Jesus again visits the villages around. Mr 6:6
Jesus sends forth the twelve. Mr 6:7-13
Death of John the Baptist. Mr 6:17-29
Feeding the five thousand. Mr 6:35-44
Miracles in Gennesaret. Mr 6:53-56
Mr 6:28 Approach of the third Passover Joh 6:4
Feeding the four thousand. Mr 8:1-9
The Transfiguration. Mr 9:2-10
Feast of Tabernacles. John 7.
Journey towards Jerusalem. Lu 9:51
The seventy disciples sent out. Lu 10:1-16
Feast of Dedication (winter). Joh 10:22-39
Jesus goes away beyond Jordan. Joh 10:40-42
The raising of Lazarus at Bethany. Joh 11:1-44
Jesus retires to Ephraim. Joh 11:54
Joh 11:29 Jesus' entry into Jerusalem. Cleanses the temple Mr 11:1-18
The Greeks visit Jesus. Voice from heaven. Joh 12:20-36
The last (fourth) Passover. The Lord's supper Mr 14:1-2
The Crucifixion. Ascension. Pentecost
30-34 The events from Pentecost to Stephen. Acts 2
The beginning of the Good News about Jesus Christ. It is said in the Prophet Isaiah--'Behold! I send my Messenger before thy face; He shall prepare thy way.' read more. 'The voice of one crying aloud in the Wilderness: "Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight."' And in fulfillment of this, John the Baptizer appeared in the Wilderness, proclaiming a baptism upon repentance, for the forgiveness of sins. The whole of Judea, as well as all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, went out to him; and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. John was clad in clothing of camels' hair, with a belt of leather round his waist, and lived on locusts and wild honey; And he proclaimed--"There is coming after me one more powerful than I, and I am not fit even to stoop down and unfasten his sandals. I have baptized you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit." Now about that time Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. And just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens rent apart, and the Spirit, like a dove, descending upon him, And from the heavens came a voice--"Thou art my Son, the Beloved; in thee I delight."
After John had been committed to prison, Jesus went to Galilee, proclaiming the Good News of God-- "The time has come, and the Kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe the Good News."
And they were all so amazed that they kept asking: "What is this? Strange teaching indeed! He gives his commands with authority even to the foul spirits, and they obey him!"
But Jesus said to them: "Let us go somewhere else, into the country towns near, that I may make my proclamation in them also; for that was why I came." And he went about making his proclamation in their Synagogues all through Galilee, and driving out the demons.
And Jesus made his way up the hill, and called those whom he wished; and they went to him. And he appointed twelve--whom he also named 'Apostles'--that they might be with him, and that he might send them out as his Messengers, to preach, read more. And with power to drive out demons. So he appointed the Twelve--Peter (which was the name that Jesus gave to Simon), James, the son of Zebediah, and his brother John (to whom he gave the name of Boanerges, which means the Thunderers), Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, And Judas Iscariot, the man that betrayed him.
And they came to the other side of the Sea--the country of the Gerasenes; And, as soon as Jesus had got out of the boat, he met a man coming out of the tombs, who was under the power of a foul spirit, read more. And who made his home in the tombs. No one had ever been able to secure him, even with a chain; For, though he had many times been left secured with fetters and chains, he had snapped the chains and broken the fetters to pieces, and no one could master him. Night and day alike, he was continually shrieking in the tombs and among the hills, and cutting himself with stones. Catching sight of Jesus from a distance, he ran and bowed to the ground before him, Shrieking out in a loud voice: "What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? For God's sake do not torment me!" For Jesus had said: "Come out from the man, you foul spirit." And he asked him: "What is your name?" "My name," he said, "is Legion, for there are many of us;" and he begged Jesus again and again not to send them away out of that country. There was a large drove of pigs close by, feeding on the hill- side. And the spirits begged Jesus: "Send us into the pigs, that we may take possession of them." Jesus gave them leave. They came out, and entered into the pigs; and the drove--about two thousand in number--rushed down the steep slope into the Sea and were drowned in the Sea. On this the men who tended them ran away, and carried the news to the town, and to the country round; and the people went to see what had happened. When they came to Jesus, they found the possessed man sitting there, clothed and in his right mind--the very man who had had the 'Legion' in him--and they were awe-struck. Then those who had seen it related to them all that had happened to the possessed man, as well as about the pigs; Upon which they began to beg Jesus to leave their neighborhood. As Jesus was getting into the boat, the possessed man begged him to let him stay with him. But Jesus refused. "Go back to your home, to your own people," he said, "and tell them of all that the Lord has done for you, and how he took pity on you." So the man went, and began to proclaim in the district of the Ten Towns all that Jesus had done for him; and every one was amazed.
On leaving that place, Jesus, followed by his disciples, went to his own part of the country. When the Sabbath came, he began to teach in the Synagogue; and the people, as they listened, were deeply impressed. "Where did he get this?" they said, "and what is this wisdom that has been given him? and these miracles which he is doing? read more. Is not he the carpenter, the son of Mary, and the brother of James, and Joses, and Judas, and Simon? And are not his sisters, too, living here among us?" This proved a hindrance to their believing in him; On which Jesus said: "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and among his own relations, and in his own home." And he could not work any miracle there, beyond placing his hands upon a few infirm persons, and curing them; And he wondered at the want of faith shown by the people. Jesus went round the villages, one after another, teaching. He called the Twelve to him, and began to send them out as his Messengers, two and two, and gave them authority over foul spirits. He instructed them to take nothing but a staff for the journey- -not even bread, or a bag, or pence in their purse; But they were to wear sandals, and not to put on a second coat. "Whenever you go to stay at a house," he said, "remain there till you leave that place; And if a place does not welcome you, or listen to you, as you go out of it shake off the dust that is on the soles of your feet, as a protest against them." So they set out, and proclaimed the need of repentance. They drove out many demons, and anointed with oil many who were infirm, and cured them.
For Herod himself had sent and arrested John, and put him in prison, in chains, to please Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, because Herod had married her. For John had said to Herod--'You have no right to be living with your brother's wife.' read more. So Herodias was incensed against John, and wanted to put him to death, but was unable to do so, Because Herod stood in fear of John, knowing him to be an upright and holy man, and protected him. He had listened to John, but still remained much perplexed, and yet he found pleasure in listening to him. A suitable opportunity, however, occurred when Herod, on his birthday, gave a dinner to his high officials, and his generals, and the foremost men in Galilee. And when his daughter--that is, the daughter of Herodias--came in and danced, she delighted Herod and those who were dining with him. 'Ask me for whatever you like,' the King said to the girl, 'and I will give it to you'; And he swore to her that he would give her whatever she asked him--up to half his kingdom. The girl went out, and said to her mother 'What must I ask for?' 'The head of John the Baptizer,' answered her mother. So she went in as quickly as possible to the King, and made her request. 'I want you,' she said, 'to give me at once, on a dish, the head of John the Baptist.' The King was much distressed; yet, on account of his oath and of the guests at his table, he did not like to refuse her. He immediately dispatched one of his bodyguard, with orders to bring John's head. The man went and beheaded John in the prison, And, bringing his head on a dish, gave it to the girl, and the girl gave it to her mother.
And, bringing his head on a dish, gave it to the girl, and the girl gave it to her mother. When John's disciples heard of it, they came and took his body away, and laid it in a tomb.
When it grew late, his disciples came up to him, and said: "This is a lonely spot, and it is already late. Send the people away, so that they may go to the farms and villages around and buy themselves something to eat." read more. But Jesus answered: "It is for you to give them something to eat." "Are we to go and buy twenty pounds' worth of bread," they asked, "to give them to eat?" "How many loaves have you?" he asked; "Go, and see." When they had found out, they told him: "Five, and two fishes." Jesus directed them to make all the people take their seats on the green grass, in parties; And they sat down in groups--in hundreds, and in fifties. Taking the five loaves and the two fishes, Jesus looked up to Heaven, and said the blessing; he broke the loaves into pieces, and gave them to his disciples for them to serve out to the people, and he divided the two fishes also among them all. Every one had sufficient to eat; And they picked up enough broken pieces to fill twelve baskets, as well as some of the fish. The men who ate the bread were five thousand in number.
When they had crossed over, they landed at Gennesaret, and moored the boat. But they had no sooner left her than the people, recognizing Jesus, read more. Hurried over the whole country-side, and began to carry about upon mats those who were ill, wherever they heard he was. So wherever he went--to villages, or towns, or farms--they would lay their sick in the market-places, begging him to let them touch only the tassel of his cloak; and all who touched were made well.
About that time, when there was again a great crowd of people who had nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples to him, and said: "My heart is moved at the sight of all these people, for they have already been with me three days and they have nothing to eat; read more. And if I send them away to their homes hungry, they will break down on the way; and some of them have come a long distance." "Where will it be possible," his disciples answered, "to get sufficient bread for these people in this lonely place?" "How many loaves have you?" he asked. "Seven," they answered. Jesus told the crowd to sit down upon the ground. Then he took the seven loaves, and, after saying the thanksgiving, broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve out; and they served them out to the crowd. They had also a few small fish; and, after he had said the blessing, he told the disciples to serve out these as well. The people had sufficient to eat, and they picked up seven baskets full of the broken pieces that were left. There were about four thousand people. Then Jesus dismissed them.
Six days later, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and led them up a high mountain alone by themselves. There his appearance was transformed before their eyes, And his clothes became of a more dazzling white than any bleacher in the world could make them. read more. And Elijah appeared to them, in company with Moses; and they were talking with Jesus. "Rabbi," said Peter, interposing, "it is good to be here; let us make three tents, one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." For he did not know what to say, because they were much afraid. Then a cloud came down and enveloped them; and from the cloud there came a voice--"This is my Son, the Beloved; him you must hear." And suddenly, on looking round, they saw that there was now no one with them but Jesus alone. As they were going down the mountain-side, Jesus cautioned them not to relate what they had seen to any one, till after the Son of Man should have risen again from the dead. They seized upon these words and discussed with one another what this 'rising from the dead' meant.
When they had almost reached Jerusalem, as far as Bethphage and Bethany, near the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent on two of his disciples. "Go to the village facing you," he said; "and, as soon as you get there, you will find a foal tethered, which no one has ever ridden; untie it, and bring it. read more. And, if any one says to you 'Why are you doing that?', say 'The Master wants it, and will be sure to send it back here at once.'" The two disciples went, and, finding a foal tethered outside a door in the street, they untied it. Some of the by-standers said to them: "What are you doing, untying the foal?" And the two disciples answered as Jesus had told them; and they allowed them to go. Then they brought the foal to Jesus, and, when they had laid their cloaks on it, he seated himself upon it. Many of the people spread their cloaks on the road, while some strewed boughs which they had cut from the fields; And those who led the way, as well as those who followed, kept shouting: "'God save him! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!' Blessed is the coming Kingdom of our father David! 'God save him from on high!'" Jesus entered Jerusalem, and went into the Temple Courts; and, after looking round at everything, as it was already late, he went out to Bethany with the Twelve. The next day, after they had left Bethany, Jesus became hungry; And, noticing a fig-tree at a distance in leaf, he went to it to see if by any chance he could find something on it; but, on coming up to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. So, addressing the tree, he exclaimed: "May no man ever again eat of your fruit!" And his disciples heard what he said. They came to Jerusalem. Jesus went into the Temple Courts, and began to drive out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of the pigeon-dealers, And would not allow any one to carry anything across the Temple Courts. Then he began to teach. "Does not Scripture say," he asked, "'My House shall be called a House of Prayer for all the nations'? But you have made it a den of robbers.'" Now the Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law heard this and began to look for some way of putting Jesus to death; for they were afraid of him, since all the people were greatly impressed by his teaching.
It was now two days before the Festival of the Passover and the Unleavened bread. The Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law were looking for an opportunity to arrest Jesus by stealth, and to put him to death; For they said: "Not during the Festival, for fear of a riot."
"Glory to God on high, And on earth peace among men in whom he finds pleasure."
When Jesus was twelve years old, they went according to custom to Jerusalem, And had finished their visit; but, when they started to return, the boy Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem, without their knowing it. read more. Thinking that he was with their fellow-travelers, they went one day's journey before searching for him among their relations and acquaintances; And then, as they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, searching everywhere for him. It was not till the third day that they found him in the Temple Courts, sitting among the Teachers, now listening to them, now asking them questions.
Coming to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, Jesus, as was his custom, went on the Sabbath into the Synagogue, and stood up to read the Scriptures. The book given him was that of the Prophet Isaiah; and Jesus opened the book and found the place where it says-- read more. 'The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, For he has consecrated me to bring Good News to the poor, He has sent me to proclaim release to captives and restoration of sight to the blind, To set the oppressed at liberty, To proclaim the accepted year of the Lord.' Then, closing the book and returning it to the attendant, he sat down. The eyes of all in the Synagogue were fixed upon him, And Jesus began: "This very day this passage has been fulfilled in your hearing." All who were present spoke well of him, and were astonished at the beautiful words that fell from his lips. "Is not he Joseph's son?" they asked. "Doubtless," said Jesus, "you will remind me of the saying-- 'Doctor, cure yourself;' and you will say 'Do here in your own country all that we have heard that has been done at Capernaum.' I tell you," he continued, "that no Prophet is acceptable in his own country. There were, doubtless, many widows in Israel in Elijah's days, when the heavens were closed for three years and six months, and a severe famine prevailed throughout the country; And yet it was not to one of them that Elijah was sent, but to a widow at Zarephath in Sidonia. And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the Prophet Elisha, yet it was not one of them who was made clean, but Naaman the Syrian." All the people in the Synagogue, as they listened to this, became enraged. Starting up, they drove Jesus out of the town, and led him to the brow of the hill on which their town stood, intending to hurl him down. But he passed through the middle of the crowd and went on his way.
Afterwards Jesus came down the hill with them and took his stand on a level place. With him were a large crowd of his disciples, and great numbers of people from the whole of Judea, Jerusalem, and the coast district of Tyre and Sidon, Who had come to hear him and to be restored to health. Those, too, who were troubled with foul spirits were cured; read more. And every one in the crowd was trying to touch him, because a power went out from him which restored them all. Then, raising his eyes and looking at his disciples, Jesus spoke as follows: "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the Kingdom of God. Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be satisfied. Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh. Blessed are you when men hate you, and when they expel you from among them, and taunt you, and reject your Name as an evil thing--on account of the Son of Man. Then indeed you may be glad and dance for joy, for be sure that your reward in Heaven will be great; for that is what their ancestors did to the Prophets. But 'alas for you who are rich,' for you have had your comforts in full. Alas for you who are sated now, for you will hunger. Alas for you who laugh now, for you will mourn and weep. Alas for you when all men speak well of you; for this is what their ancestors did to the false Prophets. But to you who hear I say--Love your enemies, show kindness to those who hate you, Bless those who curse you, pray for those who insult you. When a man gives one of you a blow on the cheek, offer the other cheek as well; and, when any one takes away your cloak, do not keep back your coat either. Give to every one who asks of you; and, when any one takes away what is yours, do not demand its return. Do to others as you wish them to do to you. If you love only those who love you, what thanks will be due to you? Why, even the outcast love those who love them! For, if you show kindness only to those who show kindness to you, what thanks will be due to you? Even the outcast do that! If you lend only to those from whom you expect to get something, what thanks will be due to you? Even the outcast lend to the outcast in the hope of getting as much in return! But love your enemies, and show them kindness, and lend to them, never despairing. Then your reward shall be great, and you shall be Sons of the Most High, for he is kind to the thankless and the bad. Learn to be merciful--even as your Father is merciful. Do not judge, and you will not be judged; do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, and others will give to you. A generous measure, pressed and shaken down, and running over, will they pour into your lap; For the measure that you mete will be meted out to you in return." Then, speaking in parables, Jesus said: "Can one blind man guide another? Will they not both fall into a ditch? A scholar is not above his teacher; yet every finished scholar shall be like his teacher. And why do you look at the straw in your brother's eye, while you pay no attention at all to the beam in your own? How can you say to your brother 'Brother, let me take out the straw in your eye,' while you yourself do not see the beam in your own? Hypocrite! Take out the beam from your own eye first, and then you will see clearly how to take out the straw in your brother's. There is no such thing as a good tree bearing worthless fruit, or, on the other hand, a worthless tree bearing good fruit. For every tree is known by its own fruit. People do not gather figs off thorn bushes, nor pick a bunch of grapes off a bramble. A good man, from the good stores of his heart, brings out what is good; while a bad man, from his bad stores, brings out what is bad. For what fills a man's heart will rise to his lips. Why do you call me 'Master! Master!' and yet fail to do what I tell you? Every one who comes to me and listens to my teaching and acts upon it--I will show you to whom he may be compared. He may be compared to a man building a house, who dug, and went deep, and laid the foundation upon the rock. Then, when a flood came, the river swept down upon that house, but had no power to shake it, because it had been built well. But those who have listened and not acted upon what they have heard may be compared to a man who built a house on the ground without any foundation. The river swept down upon it, and the house immediately collapsed; and great was the crash that followed."
As the days before his being taken up to Heaven were growing few, Jesus set his face resolutely in the direction of Jerusalem; and he sent on messengers in advance.
After this, the Master appointed seventy-two other disciples, and sent them on as his Messengers, two and two, in advance, to every town and place that he was himself intending to visit. "The harvest," he said, "is abundant, but the laborers are few. Therefore pray to the Owner of the harvest to send laborers to gather in his harvest. read more. Now, go. Remember, I am sending you out as my Messengers like lambs among wolves. Do not take a purse with you, or a bag, or sandals; and do not stop to greet any one on your journey. Whatever house you go to stay at, begin by praying for a blessing on it. Then, if any one there is deserving of a blessing, your blessing will rest upon him; but if not, it will come back upon yourselves. Remain at that same house, and eat and drink whatever they offer you; for the worker is worth his wages. Do not keep changing from one house to another. Whatever town you visit, if the people welcome you, eat what is set before you; Cure the sick there, and tell people 'The Kingdom of God is close at hand. But, whatever town you go to visit, if the people do not welcome you, go out into its streets and say 'We wipe off the very dust of your town which has clung to Our feet; still, be assured that the Kingdom of God is close at Hand.' I tell you that the doom of Sodom will be more bearable on 'That Day' than the doom of that town. Alas for you, Chorazin! Alas for you, Bethsaida! For, if the Miracles which have been done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have sat in sackcloth and ashes and repented long ago. Yet the doom of Tyre and Sidon will be more bearable at the Judgment than yours. And you, Capernaum! Will you 'exalt yourself to heaven'? 'You shall go down to the Place of Death.' He who listens to you is listening to me, and he who rejects you is rejecting me; while he who rejects me is rejecting him who sent me as his Messenger."
Two days after this there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee, and Jesus' mother was there. Jesus himself, too, with his disciples, was invited to the wedding. read more. And, when the wine ran short, his mother said to him: "They have no wine left." "What do you want with me?" answered Jesus. "My time has not come yet." His mother said to the servants: "Do whatever he tells you." There were standing there six stone water-jars, in accordance with the Jewish rule of 'purification,' each holding twenty or thirty gallons. Jesus said to the servants: "Fill the water-jars with water;" And, when they had filled them to the brim, he added: "Now take some out, and carry it to the Master of the Feast." The servants did so. And, when the Master of the Feast had tasted the water which had now become wine, not knowing where it had come from--although the servants who had taken out the water knew-- He called the bridegroom and said to him: "Every one puts good wine on the table first, and inferior wine afterwards, when his guests have drunk freely; but you have kept back the good wine till now!" This, the first sign of his mission, Jesus gave at Cana in Galilee, and by it revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him.
Then, as the Jewish Passover was near, Jesus went up to Jerusalem. In the Temple Courts he found people who were selling bullocks, sheep, and pigeons, and the money-changers at their counters. read more. So he made a whip of cords, and drove them all out of the Temple Courts, and the sheep and bullocks as well; he scattered the money of the money-changers, and overturned their tables, And said to the pigeon-dealers: "Take these things away. Do not turn my Father's House into a market-house." His disciples remembered that Scripture said--'Zeal for thy House will consume me.' Upon this the Jews asked Jesus: "What sign are you going to show us, since you act in this way?" "Destroy this temple," was his answer, "and I will raise it in three days." "This Temple," replied the Jews, "has been forty-six years in building, and are you going to 'raise it in three days'?" But Jesus was speaking of his body as a temple. Afterwards, when he had risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believed the passage of Scripture, and the words which Jesus had spoken.
It was near the time of the Jewish Festival of the Passover.
Soon after this the Festival of the Re-dedication was held at Jerusalem. It was winter; and Jesus was walking in the Temple Courts, in the Colonnade of Solomon, read more. When the Jews gathered round him, and said: "How long are you going to keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us so frankly." "I have told you so," replied Jesus, "and you do not believe me. The work that I am doing in my Father's name bears testimony to me. But you do not believe me, because you are not of my flock. My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me; And I give them Immortal Life, and they shall not be lost; nor shall any one snatch them out of my hands. What my Father has entrusted to me is more than all else; and no one can snatch anything out of the Father's hands. The Father and I are one." The Jews again brought stones to throw at him; And seeing this, Jesus said: "I have done before your eyes many good actions, inspired by the Father; for which of them would you stone me?" "It is not for any good action that we would stone you," answered the Jews, "but for blasphemy; and because you, who are only a man, make yourself out to be God." "Are there not," replied Jesus, "these words in your Law--'I said "Ye are gods"'? If those to whom God's word were addressed were said to be 'gods'--and Scripture cannot be set aside-- Do you say of one whom the Father has consecrated and sent as his Messenger to the world 'You are blaspheming,' because I said 'I am God's Son'? If I am not doing the work that my Father is doing, do not believe me; If I am doing it, even though you do not believe me, believe what that work shows; so that you may understand, and understand more and more clearly, that the Father is in union with me, and I with the Father." Upon this the Jews again sought to arrest him; but he escaped their hands. Then Jesus again crossed the Jordan to the place where John used to baptize at first, and stayed there some time, during which many people came to see him. "John gave no sign of his mission," they said; "but everything that he said about this man was true." And many learned to believe in Jesus there.
Now a man named Lazarus, of Bethany, was lying ill; he belonged to the same village as Mary and her sister Martha. This Mary, whose brother Lazarus was ill, was the Mary who anointed the Master with perfume, and wiped his feet with her hair. read more. The sisters, therefore, sent this message to Jesus--'Master, your friend is ill'; And, when Jesus heard it, he said: "This illness is not to end in death, but is to redound to the honor of God, in order that the Son of God may be honored through it." Jesus loved Martha and her sister, and Lazarus. Yet, when he heard of the illness of Lazarus, he still stayed two days in the place where he was. Then, after that, he said to his disciples: "Let us go to Judea again." "Rabbi," they replied, "the Jews were but just now seeking to stone you; and are you going there again?" "Are not there twelve hours in the day?" answered Jesus. "If a man walks about in the day-time, he does not stumble, because he can see the light of the sun; But, if he walks about at night, he stumbles, because he has not the light." And, when he had said this, he added: "Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep; but I am going that I may wake him." "If he has fallen asleep, Master, he will get well," said the disciples. But Jesus meant that he was dead; they, however, supposed that he was speaking of natural sleep. Then he said to them plainly: "Lazarus is dead; And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, so that you may learn to believe in me. But let us go to him." At this, Thomas, who was called 'The Twin,' said to his fellow-disciples: "Let us go too, so that we may die with him." When Jesus reached the place, he found that Lazarus had been four days in the tomb already. Bethany being only about two miles from Jerusalem, A number of the Jews had come there to condole with Martha and Mary on their brother's death. When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went to meet him; but Mary sat quietly at home. "Master," Martha said to Jesus, "if you had been here, my brother would not have died. Even now, I know that God will grant you whatever you ask him." "Your brother shall rise to life," said Jesus. "I know that he will," replied Martha, "in the resurrection at the Last Day." "I am the Resurrection and the Life," said Jesus. "He that believes in me shall live, though he die; And he who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?" "Yes Master," she answered; "I have learned to believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, 'who was to come' into the world." After saying this, Martha went and called her sister Mary, and whispered: "The Teacher is here, and is asking for you." As soon as Mary heard that, she got up quickly, and went to meet him.
As soon as Mary heard that, she got up quickly, and went to meet him. Jesus had not then come into the village, but was still at the place where Martha had met him. read more. So the Jews, who were in the house with Mary, condoling with her, when they saw her get up quickly and go out, followed her, thinking that she was going to the tomb to weep there. When Mary came where Jesus was and saw him, she threw herself at his feet. "Master," she exclaimed, "if you had been here, my brother would not have died!" When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come with her weeping also, he groaned deeply, and was greatly distressed. "Where have you buried him?" he asked. "Come and see, Master," they answered. Jesus burst into tears. "How he must have loved him!" the Jews exclaimed; But some of them said: "Could not this man, who gave sight to the blind man, have also prevented Lazarus from dying?" Again groaning inwardly, Jesus came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone lay against the mouth of it. "Move the stone away," said Jesus. "Master," said Martha, the sister of the dead man, "by this time the smell must be offensive, for this is the fourth day since his death." "Did not I tell you," replied Jesus, "that, if you would believe in me, you should see the glory of God?" So they moved the stone away; and Jesus, with uplifted eyes, said: "Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard my prayer; I know that thou always headrest me; but I say this for the sake of the people standing near, so that they may believe that thou has sent me as thy Messenger." Then, after saying this, Jesus called in a loud voice: "Lazarus! come out!" The dead man came out, wrapped hand and foot in a winding- sheet; his face, too, had been wrapped in a cloth. "Set him free," said Jesus, "and let him go."
In consequence of this, Jesus did not go about publicly among the Jews any more, but left that neighborhood, and went into the country bordering on the Wilderness, to a town called Ephraim, where he stayed with his disciples.
Among those who were going up to worship at the Festival were some Greeks, Who went to Philip of Bethsaida in Galilee, and said: "Sir, we wish to see Jesus." read more. Philip went and told Andrew, and then together they went and told Jesus. This was his reply-- "The time has come for the Son of Man to be exalted. In truth I tell you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it remains solitary; but, if it dies, it becomes fruitful. He who loves his life loses it; while he who hates his life in the present world shall preserve it for Immortal Life. If a man is ready to serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there my servant shall be also. If a man is ready to serve me, my Father will honor him. Now I am distressed at heart and what can I say? Father, bring me safe through this hour--yet it was for this very reason that I came to this hour-- Father, honor thine own name." At this there came a voice from Heaven, which said: "I have already honored it, and I will honor it again." The crowd of bystanders, who heard the sound, said that it was thundering. Others said: "An angel has been speaking to him." "It was not for my sake that the voice came," said Jesus, "but for yours. Now this world is on its trial. Now the Spirit that is ruling this world shall be driven out; And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, shall draw all men to myself." By these words he indicated what death he was destined to die. "We," replied the people, "have learned from the Law that the 'Christ is to remain for ever'; how is it, then, that you say that the Son of Man must be 'lifted up' Who is this 'Son of Man'?" "Only a little while longer," answered Jesus, "will you have the Light among you. Travel on while you have the Light, so that darkness may not overtake you; he who travels in the darkness does not know where he is going. While you still have the Light, believe in the Light, that you may be 'Sons of Light.'" After he had said this, Jesus went away, and hid himself from them.
And began to stone him, the witnesses laying their clothes at the feet of a young man named Saul. And they stoned Stephen, while he cried to the Lord: "Lord Jesus! receive my spirit!" read more. Falling on his knees, he called out loudly: "Lord! do not charge them with this sin;" and with these words he fell asleep.
Saul approved of his being put to death. On that very day a great persecution broke out against the Church which was in Jerusalem; and its members, with the exception of the Apostles, were all scattered over the districts of Judea and Samaria. Some religious men buried Stephen, with loud lamentations for him. read more. But Saul began to devastate the Church; he entered house after house, dragged out men and women alike, and threw them into prison. Now those who were scattered in different directions went from place to place proclaiming the Good News.
Presently, as they were going along the road, they came to some water, and the Treasurer exclaimed: "Look! here is water; what is to prevent my being baptized?"
On his arrival in Jerusalem, Saul attempted to join the disciples, but they were all afraid of him, as they did not believe that he was really a disciple.
On his arrival in Jerusalem, Saul attempted to join the disciples, but they were all afraid of him, as they did not believe that he was really a disciple. Barnabas, however, taking him by the hand, brought him to the Apostles, and told them the whole story of how Saul on his journey had seen the Lord, and how the Lord had talked to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out fearlessly in the Name of Jesus.
Barnabas, however, taking him by the hand, brought him to the Apostles, and told them the whole story of how Saul on his journey had seen the Lord, and how the Lord had talked to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out fearlessly in the Name of Jesus. After that, Saul remained in Jerusalem, in close intercourse with the Apostles; and he spoke fearlessly in the Name of the Lord,
After that, Saul remained in Jerusalem, in close intercourse with the Apostles; and he spoke fearlessly in the Name of the Lord, Talking and arguing with the Jews of foreign birth, who, however, made attempts to kill him. read more. But, when the Brethren found this out, they took him down to Caesarea, and sent him on his way to Tarsus.
But Peter sent everybody out of the room, and knelt down and prayed. Then, turning to the body, he said: "Tabitha! stand up." She opened her eyes, and, seeing Peter, sat up.
Some of them, however, who were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, on coming to Antioch, addressed themselves also to the Jews of foreign birth, telling them the Good News about that Lord Jesus.
And, when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. And so it came about that, for a whole year, they attended the meetings of the Church there, and taught a large number of people; and it was in Antioch that the disciples were first called 'Christians.'
And this they did, sending it to the Officers of the Church by the hands of Barnabas and Saul.
He had James, the brother of John, beheaded; And, when he saw that the Jews were pleased with this, he proceeded to arrest Peter also. (This was during the Festival of the Unleavened Bread.) read more. After seizing Peter, Herod put him in prison, and entrusted him to the keeping of four Guards of four soldiers each, intending, after the Passover, to bring him up before the people. So Peter was kept in prison, but meanwhile the prayers of the Church were being earnestly offered to God on his behalf. Just when Herod was intending to bring him before the people, on that very night Peter was asleep between two soldiers, chained to them both, while there were sentries in front of the door, guarding the prison. Suddenly an angel of the Lord stood by him, and a light shone in the cell. The angel struck Peter on the side, and roused him with the words: "Get up quickly." The chains dropped from his wrists, and then the angel said: "Put on your girdle and sandals." When Peter had done so, the angel added: "Throw your cloak round you and follow me." Peter followed him out, not knowing that what was happening under the angel's guidance was real, but thinking that he was seeing a vision. Passing the first Guard, and then the second, they came to the iron gate leading into the city, which opened to them of itself; and, when they had passed through that, and had walked along one street, all at once the angel left him. Then Peter came to himself and said: "Now I know beyond all doubt that the Lord has sent his angel, and has rescued me from Herod's hands and from all that the Jewish people have been expecting." As soon as he realized what had happened, he went to the house of Mary, the mother of John who was also known as Mark, where a number of people were gathered together, praying. On his knocking at the door in the gate, a maidservant, named Rhoda, came to answer it. She recognized Peter's voice, but in her joy left the gate unopened, and ran in, and told them that Peter was standing outside. "You are mad!" they exclaimed. But, when she persisted that it was so, they said: "It must be his spirit!" Meanwhile Peter went on knocking, and, when they opened the gate and saw him, they were amazed. Peter signed to them with his hand to be silent, and then told them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison, adding: "Tell James and the Brethren all this." Then he left the house, and went away to another place. In the morning there was a great stir among the soldiers-- what could have become of Peter! And, when Herod had made further search for him and failed to find him, he closely questioned the Guard, and ordered them away to execution. Then he went down from Judea to stay at Caesarea.
Instantly an angel of the Lord struck him, because he did not give God the glory; and he was attacked with worms, and died.
And at Antioch they stayed with the disciples for a considerable time.
This gave rise to a serious dispute, and much discussion, between Paul and Barnabas and these men, and it was therefore settled that Paul and Barnabas and others of their number should go up to Jerusalem, to consult the Apostles and Officers of the Church about the matter under discussion.
And that is in harmony with the words of the Prophets, where they say--
So he settled there for a year and a half, and taught God's Message among the people.
On reaching Caesarea, he went up to Jerusalem and exchanged greetings with the Church, and then went down to Antioch.
Paul went to the Synagogue there, and for three months spoke out fearlessly, giving addresses and trying to convince his hearers, about the kingdom of God.
This went on for two years, so that all who lived in Roman Asia, Jews and Greeks alike, heard the Lord's Message.
Just about that time a great disturbance arose about the Cause.
After going through those districts and speaking many encouraging words to the disciples, he went into Greece, where he stayed three months.
While we ourselves sailed from Philippi after the Passover, and joined them five days later at Troas, where we stayed for a week. On the first day of the week, when we had met for the Breaking of Bread, Paul, who was intending to leave the next day, began to address those who were present, and prolonged his address till midnight.
The day after we had sailed from there, we arrived off Chios, touched at Samos the following day, and the next day reached Miletus;
From Miletus, however, he sent to Ephesus and invited the Officers of the Church to meet him;
There we found the disciples and stayed a week with them. Speaking under the influence of the Spirit, they warned Paul not to set foot in Jerusalem.
The next day we left, and reached Caesarea, where we went to the house of Philip, the Missionary, who was one of 'the Seven,' and stayed with him.
On our arrival at Jerusalem, the Brethren there gave us a hearty welcome;
But, just as the seven days were drawing to a close, the Jews from Roman Asia caught sight of Paul in the Temple, and caused great excitement among all the people present, by seizing Paul and shouting:
Then he called two Captains, and ordered them to have two hundred men ready to go to Caesarea, as well as seventy troopers and two hundred lancers, by nine o'clock that night,
But, after the lapse of two years, Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus; and, wishing to gain popularity with the Jews, he left Paul a prisoner.
After staying among them some eight or ten days, Festus went down to Caesarea. The next day he took his seat on the Bench, and ordered Paul to be brought before him.
If, however, I am breaking the law and have committed any offence deserving death, I do not ask to escape the penalty; but, if there is nothing in the accusations of these people, no one has the power to give me up to them. I appeal to the Emperor."
So the next day, when Agrippa and Bernice had come in full state and had entered the Audience Chamber, with the superior officers and the principal people of the city, by the order of Festus Paul was brought before them.
As it was decided that we were to sail to Italy, Paul and some other prisoners were put in charge of a Captain of the Augustan Guard, named Julius.
On our reaching Rome, Paul was allowed to live by himself, except for the soldier who was in charge of him. Three days after our arrival, Paul invited the leading Jews to meet him; and, when they came, he spoke to them as follows: "Brothers, although I had done nothing hostile to the interests of our nation or to our ancestral customs, yet I was sent from Jerusalem as a prisoner, and handed over to the Romans.
I could get no peace of mind because I failed to find Titus, my Brother; so I took leave of the people there, and went on to Macedonia.
But when God, who had set me apart even before my birth, and who called me by his love, Saw fit to reveal his Son in me, so that I might tell the Good News of him among the Gentiles, then at once, instead of consulting any human being, read more. Or even going up to Jerusalem to see those who were Apostles before me, I went to Arabia, and came back again to Damascus. Three years afterwards I went up to Jerusalem to make the acquaintance of Peter, and I stayed a fortnight with him.
Three years afterwards I went up to Jerusalem to make the acquaintance of Peter, and I stayed a fortnight with him.
Three years afterwards I went up to Jerusalem to make the acquaintance of Peter, and I stayed a fortnight with him.
I beg you, as I did when I was on my way into Macedonia, to remain at Ephesus; that you may instruct certain people there not to teach new and strange doctrines,
My reason for leaving you in Crete was that you might put in order what had been left unsettled, and appoint Officers of the Church in the various towns, as I myself directed you.
It is proposed in this article to consider the text of the New Testament. The subject naturally divides itself into-- I. The history of the written text; II. The history of the printed text. I. THE HISTORY OF THE WRITTEN TEXT.--
1. The early history of the apostolic writings externally, as far as it can be traced, is the same as that of other contemporary books. St. Paul, like Cicero or Pliny often employed the services of an amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters, affixing the salutation "with his own hand."
The original copies seem to have soon perished.
2. In the natural course of things the apostolic autographs would be likely to perish soon. The material which was commonly used for letters the papyrus paper, to which St. John incidentally alludes.
comp. 3Joh 1:13 was singularly fragile, and even the stouter kinds, likely to be used for the historical books, were not fitted to bear constant use. The papyrus fragments which have come down to the present time have been preserved under peculiar circumstances as at Herculaneum or in the Egyptian tombs.
3. In the time of the Diocletian persecution, A.D. 303, copies of the Christian Scriptures were sufficiently numerous to furnish a special object for persecutors. Partly, perhaps, owing to the destruction thus caused, but still more from the natural effects of time. no MS. of the New Testament of the first three centuries remains but though no fragment of the New Testament of the first century still remains, the Italian and Egyptian papyri, which are of that date give a clear notion of the caligraphy of the period. In these the text is written in columns, rudely divided, in somewhat awkward capital letters (uncials), without any punctuation or division of words; and there is no trace of accents or breathings.
4. In addition to the later MSS. the earliest versions and patristic quotations give very important testimony to the character and history of the ante-Nicene text; but till the last quarter of the second century this source of information fails us. Only are the remains of Christian literature up to that time extremely scanty, but the practice of verbal quotation from the New Testament was not yet prevalent. As soon as definite controversies arose among Christians, the text of the New Testament assumed its true importance.
5. Several very important conclusions follow from this earliest appearance of textual criticism. It is in the first place evident that various readings existed in the books of the New Testament at a time prior to all extant authorities. History affords a trace of the pure apostolic originals. Again, from the preservation of the first variations noticed, which are often extremely minute, in one or more of the primary documents still left, we may be certain that no important changes have been made in the sacred text which we cannot now detect.
6. Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir. A.D. 220) and Origen (A.D. 1842~4). From the extant works of Origen alone no inconsiderable portion of the whole New Testament might be transcribed; and his writings are an almost inexhaustible store house for the history of the text. There can be no doubt that in Origen's time the variations in the New Testament MSS. were beginning to lead to the formation of specific groups of copies.
7. The most ancient MSS. and versions now extant exhibit the characteristic differences which have been found to exist in different parts of the works of Origen. These cannot have had their source later than the beginning of the third century, and probably were much earlier. Bengel was the first (1734) who pointed out the affinity of certain groups of MSS., which as he remarks, must have arisen before the first versions were made. The honor of carefully determining the relations of critical authorities for the New Testament text belongs to Griesbach. According to him two distinct recensions of the Gospels existed at the beginning of the third century-the Alexandrine and the Western.
8. From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of MSS. The quotations of Dionsius Alex. (A.D. 264), Petrus Alex. (cir. A.D. 312), Methodius (A.D. 311) and Eusebius (A.D. 340) confirm the prevalence of the ancient type of tent; but the public establishment of Christianity in the Roman empire necessarily led to important changes. The nominal or real adherence of the higher ranks to the Christian faith must have largely increased the demand for costly MSS. As a natural consequence the rude Hellenistic forms gave way before the current Greek, and at the same time it is reasonable to believe that smoother and fuller constructions were substituted for the rougher turns of the apostolic language. In this way the foundation of the Byzantine text was laid. Meanwhile the multiplication of copies in Africa and Syria was checked by Mohammedan conquests.
9. The appearance of the oldest MSS. have been already described. The MSS. of the fourth century, of which Codex Vaticanus may be taken as a type present a close resemblance to these. The writing is in elegant continuous uncials (capitals), in three columns, without initial letters or iota subscript or adscript. A small interval serves as a simple punctuation; and there are no accents or breathings by the hand of the first writer, though these have been added subsequently. Uncial writing continued in general use till the middle of the tenth century. From the eleventh century downward cursive writing prevailed. The earliest cursive biblical MS, is dated 964 A.D. The MSS. of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries abound in the contractions which afterward passed into the early printed books. The oldest MSS. are written on the thinnest and finest vellum; in later copies the parchment is thick and coarse. Papprus was very rarely used after the ninth century. In the tenth century cotton paper was generally employed in Europe; and one example at least occurs of its use in the ninth century. In the twelfth century the common linen or rag paper came into use. One other kind of material requires notice --re-dressed parchment, called palimpsests. Even at a very early period the original text of a parchment MS. was often erased, that the material might be used afresh. In lapse of time the original writing frequently reappeared in faint lines below the later text, and in this way many precious fragments of biblical MSS. which had been once obliterated for the transcription of other works, have been recovered.
10. The division of the Gospels into "chapters" must have come into general use some time before the fifth century. The division of the Acts and Epistles into chapters came into use at a later time. It is commonly referred to Euthalius, who, however, says that he borrowed the divisions of the Pauline Epistles from an earlier father and there is reason to believe that the division of the Acts and Catholic Epistles which he published was originally the work of Pamphilus the martyr. The Apocalypse was divided into sections by Andreas of Caesarea about A.D. 500. The titles of the sacred books are from their nature additions to the original text. The distinct names of the Gospels imply a collection, and the titles of the Epistles are notes by the possessors, and not addresses by the writers.
11. Very few MSS. certain the whole New Testament --twenty-seven in all out of the vast mass of extant documents. Besides the MSS. of the New Testament, or of parts of it, there are also lectionaries, which contain extracts arranged for the church services.
12. The number of uncial MSS. remaining. though great when compared with the ancient MSS. extent of other writings, is inconsiderable. Tischendorf reckons forty in the Gospels. In these must be added Cod. Sinait., which is entire; a new MS. of Tischendorf, which is nearly entire; and Cod. Zacynth., Which contains considerable fragments of St. Luke. In the Acts there are nine: in the Catholic Epistles five; in th
"A spirit of this kind," he said, "can be driven out only by prayer."
After his rising again, early on the first day of the week, Jesus appeared first of all to Mary of Magdala, from whom he had driven out seven demons.
I, Paul, add this greeting in my own handwriting.
I, Paul, add this greeting in my own handwriting. Remember these chains of mine. God's blessing be with you.
how much more will the blood of the Christ, who, through his eternal Spirit, offered himself up to God, as a victim without blemish, purify our consciences from a lifeless formality, and fit us for the service of the Living God!
Though I have a great deal to say to you, I would rather not trust it to paper and ink, but I am hoping to come and see you, and to speak with you face to face, so that your joy may be complete.