1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
When they have a matter, they come to me, and I judge between one and another; and I make known to them the statutes of God, and his laws.
And Jehovah said to Moses, Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel: Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from the heavens.
then his master shall bring him before the judges, and shall bring him to the door, or to the door-post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall be his bondman for ever.
If a man deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him restore double;
They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me; for if thou serve their gods, it is sure to be a snare unto thee.
Hear, Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength.
And the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, saying, Bring forth the men that have come to thee, who have come into thy house: for they have come to search out all the land.
If one man sin against another, God will judge him; but if a man sin against Jehovah, who shall intreat for him? But they hearkened not to the voice of their father, for Jehovah was minded to slay them.
Thus saith Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings to your sacrifices, and eat the flesh. For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices, in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt;
Behold, days come, saith Jehovah, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day of my taking them by the hand, to lead them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they broke, although I was a husband unto them, saith Jehovah. read more. For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel, after those days, saith Jehovah: I will put my law in their inward parts, and will write it in their heart; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know Jehovah; for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith Jehovah: for I will pardon their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.
Round about it was eighteen thousand cubits; and the name of the city from that day, Jehovah is there.
I have prescribed unto him the manifold things of my law: they are counted as a strange thing.
but let judgment roll down as waters, and righteousness as an ever-flowing stream. Did ye bring unto me sacrifices and oblations in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel? read more. Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of your Moloch, and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye had made to yourselves;
But Jesus answering said to him, Suffer it now; for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffers him.
Think not that I am come to make void the law or the prophets; I am not come to make void, but to fulfil.
Think not that I am come to make void the law or the prophets; I am not come to make void, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Until the heaven and the earth pass away, one iota or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all come to pass.
For verily I say unto you, Until the heaven and the earth pass away, one iota or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all come to pass.
For verily I say unto you, Until the heaven and the earth pass away, one iota or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all come to pass. Whosoever then shall do away with one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of the heavens; but whosoever shall practise and teach them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of the heavens. read more. For I say unto you, that unless your righteousness surpass that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of the heavens. Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not kill; but whosoever shall kill shall be subject to the judgment. But I say unto you, that every one that is lightly angry with his brother shall be subject to the judgment; but whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be subject to be called before the sanhedrim; but whosoever shall say, Fool, shall be subject to the penalty of the hell of fire. If therefore thou shouldest offer thy gift at the altar, and there shouldest remember that thy brother has something against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, and first go, be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Make friends with thine adverse party quickly, whilst thou art in the way with him; lest some time the adverse party deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say to thee, Thou shalt in no wise come out thence till thou hast paid the last farthing. Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt not commit adultery. But I say unto you, that every one who looks upon a woman to lust after her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. But if thy right eye be a snare to thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members perish, and not thy whole body be cast into hell. And if thy right hand be a snare to thee, cut it off and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members perish, and not thy whole body be cast into hell. It has been said too, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a letter of divorce. But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, except for cause of fornication, makes her commit adultery, and whosoever marries one that is put away commits adultery. Again, ye have heard that it has been said to the ancients, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt render to the Lord what thou hast sworn. But I say unto you, Do not swear at all; neither by the heaven, because it is the throne of God; nor by the earth, because it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your word be Yea, yea; Nay, nay; but what is more than these is from evil. Ye have heard that it has been said, Eye for eye and tooth for tooth. But I say unto you, not to resist evil; but whoever shall strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other; and to him that would go to law with thee and take thy body coat, leave him thy cloak also. And whoever will compel thee to go one mile, go with him two. To him that asks of thee give, and from him that desires to borrow of thee turn not away. Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who insult you and persecute you, that ye may be the sons of your Father who is in the heavens; for he makes his sun rise on evil and good, and sends rain on just and unjust. For if ye should love those who love you, what reward have ye? Do not also the tax-gatherers the same? And if ye should salute your brethren only, what do ye extraordinary? Do not also the Gentiles the same? Be ye therefore perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.
And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these words, the crowds were astonished at his doctrine,
And Jesus says to him, See thou tell no man, but go, shew thyself to the priest, and offer the gift which Moses ordained, for a testimony to them.
Or have ye not read in the law that on the sabbaths the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless? But I say unto you, that there is here what is greater than the temple.
But he said to them, What man shall there be of you who has one sheep, and if this fall into a pit on the sabbath, will not lay hold of it and raise it up?
But if I by the Spirit of God cast out demons, then indeed the kingdom of God is come upon you. Or how can any one enter into the house of the strong man and plunder his goods, unless first he bind the strong man? and then he will plunder his house. read more. He that is not with me is against me, and he that gathers not with me scatters.
A queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, more than Solomon is here.
But he answering said, I have not been sent save to the lost sheep of Israel's house.
But that we may not be an offence to them, go to the sea and cast a hook, and take the first fish that comes up, and when thou hast opened its mouth thou wilt find a stater; take that and give it to them for me and thee.
And the Pharisees came to him tempting him, and saying, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? But he answering said to them, Have ye not read that he who made them, from the beginning made them male and female, read more. and said, On account of this a man shall leave father and mother, and shall be united to his wife, and the two shall be one flesh? so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate. They say to him, Why then did Moses command to give a letter of divorce and to send her away? He says to them, Moses, in view of your hardheartedness, allowed you to put away your wives; but from the beginning it was not thus. But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, not for fornication, and shall marry another, commits adultery; and he who marries one put away commits adultery.
as indeed the Son of man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many.
But the Pharisees, having heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, were gathered together. And one of them, a lawyer, demanded, tempting him, and saying, read more. Teacher, which is the great commandment in the law? And he said to him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy understanding. This is the great and first commandment. And the second is like it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments the whole law and the prophets hang.
For this is my blood, that of the new covenant, that shed for many for remission of sins.
And it came to pass that he went on the sabbath through the cornfields; and his disciples began to walk on, plucking the ears. And the Pharisees said to him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath what is not lawful? read more. And he said to them, Have ye never read what David did when he had need and hungered, he and those with him, how he entered into the house of God, in the section of Abiathar the high priest, and ate the shew-bread, which it is not lawful unless for the priests to eat, and gave even to those that were with him? And he said to them, The sabbath was made on account of man, not man on account of the sabbath;
And he said to them, The sabbath was made on account of man, not man on account of the sabbath; so that the Son of man is lord of the sabbath also.
And they watched him if he would heal him on the sabbath, that they might accuse him.
But in vain do they worship me, teaching as their teachings commandments of men. For, leaving the commandment of God, ye hold what is delivered by men to keep washings of vessels and cups, and many other such like things ye do. read more. And he said to them, Well do ye set aside the commandment of God, that ye may observe what is delivered by yourselves to keep. For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, he who speaks ill of father or mother, let him surely die. But ye say, If a man say to his father or his mother, It is corban (that is, gift), whatsoever thou mightest have profit from me by ... And ye no longer suffer him to do anything for his father or his mother; making void the word of God by your traditional teaching which ye have delivered; and many such like things ye do. And having called again the crowd, he said to them, Hear me, all of you, and understand: There is nothing from outside a man entering into him which can defile him; but the things which go out from him, those it is which defile the man. If any one have ears to hear, let him hear. And when he went indoors from the crowd, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. And he says to them, Are ye also thus unintelligent? Do ye not perceive that all that is outside entering into the man cannot defile him, because it does not enter into his heart but into his belly, and goes out into the draught, purging all meats?
because it does not enter into his heart but into his belly, and goes out into the draught, purging all meats? And he said, That which goes forth out of the man, that defiles the man. read more. For from within, out of the heart of men, go forth evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickednesses, deceit, licentiousness, a wicked eye, injurious language, haughtiness, folly; all these wicked things go forth from within and defile the man.
But he was silent, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and says to him, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?
And when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising him, his name was called Jesus, which was the name given by the angel before he had been conceived in the womb.
And the book of the prophet Esaias was given to him; and having unrolled the book he found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach glad tidings to the poor; he has sent me to preach to captives deliverance, and to the blind sight, to send forth the crushed delivered, read more. to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. And having rolled up the book, when he had delivered it up to the attendant, he sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed upon him. And he began to say to them, To-day this scripture is fulfilled in your ears.
And behold, a certain lawyer stood up tempting him, and saying, Teacher, having done what, shall I inherit life eternal? And he said to him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? read more. But he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thine understanding; and thy neighbour as thyself. And he said to him, Thou hast answered right: this do and thou shalt live. But he, desirous of justifying himself, said to Jesus, And who is my neighbour? And Jesus replying said, A certain man descended from Jerusalem to Jericho and fell into the hands of robbers, who also, having stripped him and inflicted wounds, went away leaving him in a half-dead state. And a certain priest happened to go down that way, and seeing him, passed on on the opposite side; and in like manner also a Levite, being at the spot, came and looked at him and passed on on the opposite side. But a certain Samaritan journeying came to him, and seeing him, was moved with compassion, and came up to him and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine; and having put him on his own beast, took him to the inn and took care of him. And on the morrow as he left, taking out two denarii he gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, Take care of him, and whatsoever thou shalt expend more, I will render to thee on my coming back. Which now of these three seems to thee to have been neighbour of him who fell into the hands of the robbers? And he said, He that shewed him mercy. And Jesus said to him, Go, and do thou likewise.
But as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him that he would dine with him; and entering in he placed himself at table. But the Pharisee seeing it wondered that he had not first washed before dinner. read more. But the Lord said to him, Now do ye Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the dish, but your inward parts are full of plunder and wickedness. Fools, has not he who has made the outside made the inside also? But rather give alms of what ye have, and behold, all things are clean to you.
And this woman, who is a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has bound, lo, these eighteen years, ought she not to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day? And as he said these things, all who were opposed to him were ashamed; and all the crowd rejoiced at all the glorious things which were being done by him.
The law and the prophets were until John: from that time the glad tidings of the kingdom of God are announced, and every one forces his way into it.
for I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned with the lawless: for also the things concerning me have an end.
And having begun from Moses and from all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
For the law was given by Moses: grace and truth subsists through Jesus Christ.
For the law was given by Moses: grace and truth subsists through Jesus Christ.
And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, thus must the Son of man be lifted up,
And immediately the man became well, and took up his couch and walked: and on that day was sabbath. The Jews therefore said to the healed man, It is sabbath, it is not permitted thee to take up thy couch. read more. He answered them, He that made me well, he said to me, Take up thy couch and walk. They asked him therefore, Who is the man who said to thee, Take up thy couch and walk? But he that had been healed knew not who it was, for Jesus had slidden away, there being a crowd in the place. After these things Jesus finds him in the temple, and said to him, Behold, thou art become well: sin no more, that something worse do not happen to thee. The man went away and told the Jews that it was Jesus who had made him well. And for this the Jews persecuted Jesus and sought to kill him, because he had done these things on sabbath. But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto and I work. For this therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he had not only violated the sabbath, but also said that God was his own Father, making himself equal with God. Jesus therefore answered and said to them, Verily, verily, I say to you, The Son can do nothing of himself save whatever he sees the Father doing: for whatever things he does, these things also the Son does in like manner. For the Father loves the Son and shews him all things which he himself does; and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may wonder.
It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every one that has heard from the Father himself, and has learned of him, comes to me;
I am the living bread which has come down out of heaven: if any one shall have eaten of this bread he shall live for ever; but the bread withal which I shall give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
Art thou greater than our father Abraham, who has died? and the prophets have died: whom makest thou thyself?
Some of the Pharisees therefore said, This man is not of God, for he does not keep the sabbath. Others said, How can a sinful man perform such signs? And there was a division among them.
They called therefore a second time the man who had been blind, and said to him, Give glory to God: we know that this man is sinful.
Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?
But a certain one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, Ye know nothing
Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except the grain of wheat falling into the ground die, it abides alone; but if it die, it bears much fruit.
The crowd answered him, We have heard out of the law that the Christ abides for ever; and how sayest thou that the Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this, the Son of man?
But that the word written in their law might be fulfilled, They hated me without a cause.
The Jews answered him, We have a law, and according to our law he ought to die, because he made himself Son of God.
Be it known unto you, therefore, brethren, that through this man remission of sins is preached to you,
What shall we say then that Abraham our father according to flesh has found? For if Abraham has been justified on the principle of works, he has whereof to boast: but not before God; read more. for what does the scripture say? And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness. Now to him that works the reward is not reckoned as of grace, but of debt: but to him who does not work, but believes on him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness.
But law came in, in order that the offence might abound; but where sin abounded grace has overabounded,
What shall we say then? is the law sin? Far be the thought. But I had not known sin, unless by law: for I had not had conscience also of lust unless the law had said, Thou shalt not lust; but sin, getting a point of attack by the commandment, wrought in me every lust; for without law sin was dead. read more. But I was alive without law once; but the commandment having come, sin revived, but I died. And the commandment, which was for life, was found, as to me, itself to be unto death: for sin, getting a point of attack by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me. So that the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.
So that the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good. Did then that which is good become death to me? Far be the thought. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death to me by that which is good; in order that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful.
Did then that which is good become death to me? Far be the thought. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death to me by that which is good; in order that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful. For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am fleshly, sold under sin. read more. For that which I do, I do not own: for not what I will, this I do; but what I hate, this I practise. But if what I do not will, this I practise, I consent to the law that it is right. Now then it is no longer I that do it, but the sin that dwells in me. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, good does not dwell: for to will is there with me, but to do right I find not. For I do not practise the good that I will; but the evil I do not will, that I do. But if what I do not will, this I practise, it is no longer I that do it, but the sin that dwells in me. I find then the law upon me who will to practise what is right, that with me evil is there. For I delight in the law of God according to the inward man: but I see another law in my members, warring in opposition to the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which exists in my members. O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me out of this body of death?
For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set me free from the law of sin and of death. For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, having sent his own Son, in likeness of flesh of sin, and for sin, has condemned sin in the flesh,
But Israel, pursuing after a law of righteousness, has not attained to that law.
For they, being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted to the righteousness of God.
But to the married I enjoin, not I, but the Lord, Let not wife be separated from husband;
But we have rejected the hidden things of shame, not walking in deceit, nor falsifying the word of God, but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every conscience of men before God.
For I, through law, have died to law, that I may live to God.
Is then the law against the promises of God? Far be the thought. For if a law had been given able to quicken, then indeed righteousness were on the principle of law;
So that the law has been our tutor up to Christ, that we might be justified on the principle of faith.
Now I say, As long as the heir is a child, he differs nothing from a bondman, though he be lord of all; but he is under guardians and stewards until the period fixed by the father. read more. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under the principles of the world; but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, come of woman, come under law,
but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, come of woman, come under law, that he might redeem those under law, that we might receive sonship.
Bear one another's burdens, and thus fulfil the law of the Christ.
and that I may be found in him, not having my righteousness, which would be on the principle of law, but that which is by faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God through faith,
and that I may be found in him, not having my righteousness, which would be on the principle of law, but that which is by faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God through faith,
Let no one fraudulently deprive you of your prize, doing his own will in humility and worship of angels, entering into things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by the mind of his flesh,
And Moses indeed was faithful in all his house, as a ministering servant, for a testimony of the things to be spoken after;