1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I declare unto them the statutes of God and his laws.
And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the sons of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.
Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him forever.
When a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it is stolen out of the man's house; if the thief is found, let him pay double.
They shall not dwell in thy land lest peradventure they make thee sin against me by serving their gods, for it will be a snare unto thee.
Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart and with all thy soul and with all thy might.
Then the king of Jericho sent unto Rahab, saying, Bring forth the men that have come unto thee, who have entered into thy house; for they are come to spy out all the land.
If one man sins against another, the judges shall judge him, but if someone sins against the LORD, who shall intreat for him? Notwithstanding they did not hearken unto the voice of their father because the LORD had already decided to kill them.
Thus hath the LORD of the hosts, the God of Israel said: Add your burnt offerings upon your sacrifices and eat flesh. For I did not speak unto your fathers, nor command them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices:
Behold, the days come, said the LORD, in which I will make a new covenant with the house of Jacob and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt because they invalidated my covenant although I was a husband unto them, said the LORD; read more. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, said the LORD, I will give my law in their souls and write it in their hearts and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall no longer teach every man his neighbour and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD, for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, said the LORD, for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
It was round about eighteen thousand reeds: and the name of the city from that day shall be, THE LORD IS HERE.
I have written to him the great things of my law, but they were counted as strange things.
But let judgment run down as waters, and righteousness as a mighty stream. Did you perchance offer me any sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness in forty years, O house of Israel? read more. But ye have offered unto Sicut your king, and unto Chiun your idols, the star of your gods which ye made.
And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now, for thus it is expedient for us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him.
Think not that I am come to undo the law or the prophets; I am not come to undo, but to fulfil.
Think not that I am come to undo the law or the prophets; I am not come to undo, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Until heaven and earth pass away, not one jot or one tittle shall pass from the law until all is fulfilled.
For verily I say unto you, Until heaven and earth pass away, not one jot or one tittle shall pass from the law until all is fulfilled.
For verily I say unto you, Until heaven and earth pass away, not one jot or one tittle shall pass from the law until all is fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall undo one of these least commandments and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of the heavens; but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of the heavens. read more. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of the heavens. Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not commit murder, and whosoever shall commit murder shall be guilty of the judgment; but I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother out of control shall be in danger of the judgment, and whosoever shall insult his brother shall be in danger of the council, but whosoever shall say, Thou art impious, shall be in danger of hell. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there remember that thy brother has something against thee; leave thy gift there before the altar, and go; first restore friendship with thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Conciliate with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out of there, until thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but I say unto you, That whosoever looks on a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. Therefore if thy right eye should bring thee occasion to stumble, pluck it out and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if thy right hand should bring thee occasion to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is better for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. It was also said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a bill of divorce; but I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, except for the cause of fornication, causes her to commit adultery; and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced commits adultery. Again, ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Thou shalt not perjure thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths; but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by the heaven, for it is God's throne, nor by the earth, for it is his footstool, neither by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head because thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your communication be, Yes, yes; No, no; for whatsoever is more than this comes of evil. Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; but I say unto you, That ye resist not with evil, but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if anyone desires to sue thee at the law, and take away thy clothing, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him two. Give to him that asks of thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away. Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless those that curse you, do good to those that hate you, and pray for those who speak evil about you, and persecute you; that ye may be sons of your Father who is in the heavens, for he makes his sun to rise on the evil and on the good and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. For if ye love those who love you, what reward shall ye have? Do not even the publicans the same? And if ye embrace your brethren only, what do ye more than others? Do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father who is in the heavens is perfect.
And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these words, the multitude marvelled at his doctrine;
Then Jesus said unto him, See thou tell no one; but go, show thyself to the priest and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath and are blameless? But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple.
And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you that shall have one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it and lift it out?
But if I cast out the demons by the Spirit of God, then certainly the kingdom of God is come unto you. Or else how can one enter into the strong man's house and spoil his goods except he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his house. read more. He that is not with me is against me, and he that does not gather with me scatters abroad.
The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it, for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.
But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea and cast a hook and take up the first fish that comes up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a stater, a coin worth four drachmas; take that, and give it unto them for me and thee.
Then the Pharisees came unto him, tempting him and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for any cause? And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he who made them at the beginning made them male and female? read more. And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother and shall be joined to his wife, and they shall be two in one flesh. Therefore they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate. They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a bill of divorce and to put her away? He said unto them, Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to put away your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication and shall marry another, commits adultery, and whosoever marries her that is put away commits adultery.
even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a ransom for many.
Then the Pharisees, hearing that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered together. And one of them, who was an interpreter of the law, asked him a question, tempting him and saying, read more. Master, which is the great commandment in the law? Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.
for this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
And it came to pass that as he went through the planted fields again on the sabbath day, his disciples began, as they walked, to pluck the ears of grain. And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? read more. And he said unto them, Have ye never read what David did when he had need and was hungry, he and those that were with him? How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest and ate the showbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath;
And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath; therefore the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath.
And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day, that they might accuse him.
Howbeit in vain do they honor me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men as the washing of pots and cups, and many other such like things ye do. read more. And he also said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition. For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother, and, Whosoever curses father or mother shall most definitely die. But ye say, It is enough if a man shall say to his father or mother, It is all Corban, (that is to say, my gift to God) whatever with which thou mightest be profited by me. And ye suffer him to do no more for his father or for his mother, invalidating the word of God with your tradition, which ye have given; and many such like things do ye. And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you and understand; there is nothing from outside the man that entering into him can defile him, but the things which come out of him, those are what defile the man. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear. And when he was entered into the house from the people, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. And he said unto them, Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not understand that anything from outside that enters into the man cannot defile him? Because it enters not into his heart, but into the belly, and the man goes out to the privy and purges all foods.
Because it enters not into his heart, but into the belly, and the man goes out to the privy and purges all foods. For he had said that it is what comes out of the man that defiles the man. read more. For from within, out of the heart of men, come forth the evil thoughts, the adulteries, the fornications, the murders, the thefts, the covetousness, the wickedness, the deceit, the lasciviousness, the evil eye, the slander, the pride, the unwiseness: all these evil things come out from within and defile the man.
But he was silent and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?
And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called Jesus, which he was called by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Isaiah. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is upon me because he has anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those that are broken, read more. to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister and sat down. And the eyes of all those that were in the synagogue were fastened on him. And he began to say unto them, Today this scripture is fulfilled in your ears.
And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He said unto him, What is written in the law? How readest thou? read more. And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul and with all thy strength and with all thy understanding, and thy neighbour as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right; do this, and thou shalt live. But he, desiring to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour? And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment and wounded him and departed, leaving him half dead. And it so happened that a certain priest came down that way; and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. And likewise a Levite, when he came near the place and looked on him, he passed by on the other side. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was; and when he saw him, he was moved with compassion and went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast and brought him to an inn and took care of him. And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two denarius and gave them to the host and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee. Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves? And he said, He that showed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go and do thou likewise.
And as he spoke, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him, and he went in and sat down to food. And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner. read more. And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness. Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make that which is within also? But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you.
And regarding this daughter of Abraham, who, behold, Satan had bound eighteen years, does it not behoove us to release her from this bond on the Sabbath day? And as he said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed, but all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.
The law and the prophets were until John; since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and whosoever will presses into it.
For I say unto you that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors; for the things written concerning me have a fulfillment.
And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded this unto them in all the scriptures concerning himself.
For the law was given through Moses, but the grace and the truth of God came through Jesus, the Christ.
For the law was given through Moses, but the grace and the truth of God came through Jesus, the Christ.
And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up,
And immediately the man was made whole and took up his bed and walked, and on that day was the sabbath. The Jews therefore said unto him that was cured, It is the sabbath day; it is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed. read more. He answered them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy bed and walk. Then they asked him, Who is the man that said unto thee, Take up thy bed and walk? And he that was healed did not know who it was; for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place. Afterward Jesus found him in the temple and said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole; sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee. The man departed and told the Jews that it was Jesus who had made him whole. And for this reason the Jews persecuted Jesus and sought to kill him: because he had done these things on a sabbath. But Jesus answered them, My Father works until now, and I work. Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God. Then Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself but what he sees the Father do; for all that he does, this also the Son does together with him. For the Father loves the Son and shows him all the things that he does, and he will show him greater works than these that ye may marvel.
It is written in the prophets, And they shall all be taught of God. Every man therefore that has heard from the Father and has learned comes unto me.
I AM the living bread which came down from heaven; if anyone eats of this bread, they shall live for ever; and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
Art thou greater than our father Abraham who died? and the prophets died; whom makest thou thyself?
Therefore some of the Pharisees said, This man is not of God because he does not keep the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such signs? And there was a division among them.
Then they called again the man that had been blind and said unto him, Give glory to God; we know that this man is a sinner.
Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?
And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all
Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except the grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it abides alone; but if it dies, it brings forth much fruit.
The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that the Christ abides for ever; and how sayest thou, It is expedient that the Son of man be lifted up? Who is this Son of man?
But this comes to pass that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.
The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die because he made himself the Son of God.
Be it known unto you, therefore, men and brethren, that through this one is preached unto you the remission of sins;
What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, has found? For if Abraham were justified by works, he has reason to glory in himself, but not before God. read more. For what does the scripture say? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. But unto him that works, the reward is not reckoned as grace, but as debt. But to him that does not work, but believes in him that justifies the ungodly, the faith is counted as righteousness.
Moreover the law entered that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound,
What shall we say then? Is the law sin? No, in no wise. But, I did not know sin except by the law; for neither would I have known lust if the law did not say, Thou shalt not covet. Then sin, when there was occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of lust. For without the law sin was as if it were dormant. read more. So that without the law I lived for some time; but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And I found that the same commandment, which was unto life, was mortal unto me. For sin, having had occasion, deceived me by the commandment and by it killed me. So the law is truly holy, and the commandment holy and just and good.
So the law is truly holy, and the commandment holy and just and good. Was then that which is good made death unto me? No, in no wise. But sin, to show itself sin by that which is good, worked death in me, making sin exceedingly sinful by the commandment.
Was then that which is good made death unto me? No, in no wise. But sin, to show itself sin by that which is good, worked death in me, making sin exceedingly sinful by the commandment. For we now know that the law is spiritual, but I am carnal, sold unto subjection by sin. read more. For that which I do, I do not understand, and not even the good that I desire is what I do; but what I hate, that is what I do. If then I do that which I do not desire, I approve that the law is good. So that it is no longer I that do it, but sin that dwells in me. And I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwells no good thing; for I have the desire, but I am not able to perform that which is good. For I do not do the good that I desire; but the evil which I do not desire, that I do. And if I do that which I do not desire, I am not working, but sin that dwells in me. So that, desiring to do good, I find this law: evil is natural unto me. For I delight with the law of God with the inward man, but I see another law in my members which rebels against the law of my mind, bringing captive unto the law of sin which is in my members. O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?
For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ, Jesus, has made me free from the law of sin and death. For that which was impossible to the law, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh
and Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness.
For they, being ignorant of God's righteousness and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.
And unto the married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife separate from her husband;
but remove from ourselves every hidden shameful thing, not walking in craftiness, nor adulterating the word of God, but in the manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God.
For through the law I am dead to the law, that I might live unto God.
Is the law then against the promises of God? No, in no wise, for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.
Therefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
Now I say That the heir, as long as he is a child differs in nothing from a slave, though he be lord of all, but is under the hand of tutors and governors until the time appointed of the father. read more. Even so we, when we were children, were in slavery under the elements of the world, but when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,
but when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.
Bear ye one another's burdens and so fulfil the law of the Christ.
and be found in him, not having my own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
and be found in him, not having my own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
Let no one govern you according to their own will under pretext of humility and religion of angels, intruding into those things which they have not seen, vainly puffed up by their fleshly mind,
And Moses verily was faithful over all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after,
Which was a figure of that time present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience,