1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
And if they have any question between themselves, they come to me, and I am judge between a man and his neighbour, and I give them the orders and laws of God.
And the Lord said to Moses, Say to the children of Israel, You yourselves have seen that my voice has come to you from heaven
Then his master is to take him to the gods of the house, and at the door, or at its framework, he is to make a hole in his ear with a sharp-pointed instrument; and he will be his servant for ever.
If a man puts money or goods in the care of his neighbour to keep for him, and it is taken from the man's house, if they get the thief, he will have to make payment of twice the value.
Let them not go on living in your land, or they will make you do evil against me: for if you give worship to their gods, it will certainly be a cause of sin to you.
Give ear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord: And the Lord your God is to be loved with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.
Then the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, saying, Send out the men who have come to you and are in your house; for they have come with the purpose of searching out all the land.
If one man does wrong to another, God will be his judge: but if a man's sin is against the Lord, who will take up his cause? But they gave no attention to the voice of their father, for it was the Lord's purpose to send destruction on them.
These are the words of the Lord of armies, the God of Israel: Put your burned offerings with your offerings of beasts, and take flesh for your food. For I said nothing to your fathers, and gave them no orders, on the day when I took them out of Egypt, about burned offerings or offerings of beasts:
See, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new agreement with the people of Israel and with the people of Judah: Not like the agreement which I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to be their guide out of the land of Egypt; which agreement was broken by them, and I gave them up, says the Lord. read more. But this is the agreement which I will make with the people of Israel after those days, says the Lord; I will put my law in their inner parts, writing it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they will be my people. And no longer will they be teaching every man his neighbour and every man his brother, saying, Get knowledge of the Lord: for they will all have knowledge of me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the Lord: for they will have my forgiveness for their evil-doing, and their sin will go from my memory for ever.
It is to be eighteen thousand all round: and the name of the town from that day will be, The Lord is there.
Though I put my law in writing for him in ten thousand rules, they are to him as a strange thing.
But let the right go rolling on like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream. Did you come to me with offerings of beasts and meal offerings in the waste land for forty years, O Israel? read more. Truly, you will take up Saccuth your king and Kaiwan your images, the star of your god, which you made for yourselves.
But Jesus made answer, saying to him, Let it be so now: because so it is right for us to make righteousness complete. Then he gave him baptism.
Let there be no thought that I have come to put an end to the law or the prophets. I have not come for destruction, but to make complete.
Let there be no thought that I have come to put an end to the law or the prophets. I have not come for destruction, but to make complete. Truly I say to you, Till heaven and earth come to an end, not the smallest letter or part of a letter will in any way be taken from the law, till all things are done.
Truly I say to you, Till heaven and earth come to an end, not the smallest letter or part of a letter will in any way be taken from the law, till all things are done.
Truly I say to you, Till heaven and earth come to an end, not the smallest letter or part of a letter will in any way be taken from the law, till all things are done. Whoever then goes against the smallest of these laws, teaching men to do the same, will be named least in the kingdom of heaven; but he who keeps the laws, teaching others to keep them, will be named great in the kingdom of heaven. read more. For I say to you, If your righteousness is not greater than the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never go into the kingdom of heaven. You have knowledge that it was said in old times, You may not put to death; and, Whoever puts to death will be in danger of being judged: But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother will be in danger of being judged; and he who says to his brother, Raca, will be in danger from the Sanhedrin; and whoever says, You foolish one, will be in danger of the hell of fire. If then you are making an offering at the altar and there it comes to your mind that your brother has something against you, While your offering is still before the altar, first go and make peace with your brother, then come and make your offering. Come to an agreement quickly with him who has a cause against you at law, while you are with him on the way, for fear that he may give you up to the judge and the judge may give you to the police and you may be put into prison. Truly I say to you, You will not come out from there till you have made payment of the very last farthing. You have knowledge that it was said, You may not have connection with another man's wife: But I say to you that everyone whose eyes are turned on a woman with desire has had connection with her in his heart. And if your right eye is a cause of trouble to you, take it out and put it away from you; because it is better to undergo the loss of one part, than for all your body to go into hell. And if your right hand is a cause of trouble to you, let it be cut off and put it away from you; because it is better to undergo the loss of one part, than for all your body to go into hell. Again, it was said, Whoever puts away his wife has to give her a statement in writing for this purpose: But I say to you that everyone who puts away his wife for any other cause but the loss of her virtue, makes her false to her husband; and whoever takes her as his wife after she is put away, is no true husband to her. Again, you have knowledge that it was said in old times, Do not take false oaths, but give effect to your oaths to the Lord: But I say to you, Take no oaths at all: not by the heaven, because it is the seat of God; Or by the earth, because it is the resting-place for his foot; or by Jerusalem, because it is the town of the great King. You may not take an oath by your head, because you are not able to make one hair white or black. But let your words be simply, Yes or No: and whatever is more than these is of the Evil One. You have knowledge that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I say to you, Do not make use of force against an evil man; but to him who gives you a blow on the right side of your face let the left be turned. And if any man goes to law with you and takes away your coat, do not keep back your robe from him. And whoever makes you go one mile, go with him two. Give to him who comes with a request, and keep not your property from him who would for a time make use of it. You have knowledge that it was said, Have love for your neighbour, and hate for him who is against you: But I say to you, Have love for those who are against you, and make prayer for those who are cruel to you; So that you may be the sons of your Father in heaven; for his sun gives light to the evil and to the good, and he sends rain on the upright man and on the sinner. For if you have love for those who have love for you, what credit is it to you? do not the tax-farmers the same? And if you say, Good day, to your brothers only, what do you do more than others? do not even the Gentiles the same? Be then complete in righteousness, even as your Father in heaven is complete.
And it came about, when Jesus had come to the end of these words, that the people were surprised at his teaching,
And Jesus said to him, See that you say nothing about this to anyone; but go and let the priest see you and make the offering which was ordered by Moses, for a witness to them.
Or is it not said in the law, how the Sabbath is broken by the priests in the Temple and they do no wrong? But I say to you that a greater thing than the Temple is here.
And he said to them, Which of you, having a sheep, if it gets into a hole on the Sabbath day, will not put out a helping hand and get it back?
But if I by the Spirit of God send out evil spirits, then is the kingdom of God come on you. Or how may one go into a strong man's house and take his goods, if he does not first put cords round the strong man? and then he may take his goods. read more. Whoever is not with me is against me; and he who does not take part with me in getting people together, is driving them away.
The queen of the South will come up in the day of judging and give her decision against this generation: for she came from the ends of the earth to give ear to the wisdom of Solomon; and now a greater than Solomon is here.
But he made answer and said, I was sent only to the wandering sheep of the house of Israel.
But, so that we may not be a cause of trouble to them, go to the sea, and let down a hook, and take the first fish which comes up; and in his mouth you will see a bit of money: take that, and give it to them for me and you.
And certain Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, Is it right for a man to put away his wife for every cause? And he said in answer, Have you not seen in the Writings, that he who made them at the first made them male and female, and said, read more. For this cause will a man go away from his father and mother, and be joined to his wife; and the two will become one flesh? So that they are no longer two, but one flesh. Then let not that which has been joined by God be parted by man. They say to him, Why then did Moses give orders that a husband might give her a statement in writing and be free from her? He says to them, Moses, because of your hard hearts, let you put away your wives: but it has not been so from the first. And I say to you, Whoever puts away his wife for any other cause than the loss of her virtue, and takes another, is a false husband: and he who takes her as his wife when she is put away, is no true husband to her.
Even as the Son of man did not come to have servants, but to be a servant, and to give his life for the salvation of men.
But the Pharisees, hearing how the mouths of the Sadducees had been stopped, came together; And one of them, a teacher of the law, put a question to him, testing him, and saying, read more. Master, which is the chief rule in the law? And he said to him, Have love for the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest rule. And a second like it is this, Have love for your neighbour as for yourself. On these two rules all the law and the prophets are based.
Take of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the testament, which is given for men for the forgiveness of sins.
And it came about that on the Sabbath day he was going through the grain-fields; and while they were walking, his disciples took the heads of grain. And the Pharisees said to him, Why are they doing what it is not right to do on the Sabbath? read more. And he said to them, Have you no knowledge of what David did, when he had need and was without food, he, and those who were with him? How he went into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and took for food the holy bread, which only the priests may take, and gave it to those who were with him? And he said to them, The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath;
And he said to them, The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath; So that the Son of man is lord even of the Sabbath.
And they were watching him to see if he would make him well on the Sabbath day, so that they might have something against him.
But their worship is to no purpose, while they give as their teaching the rules of men. For, turning away from the law of God, you keep the rules of men. read more. And he said to them, Truly you put on one side the law of God, so that you may keep the rules which have been handed down to you. For Moses said, Give honour to your father and mother, and, He who says evil of father or mother, let him have the punishment of death: But you say, If a man says to his father or his mother, That by which you might have had profit from me is Corban, that is to say, Given to God, You no longer let him do anything for his father or his mother; Making the word of God of no effect by your rule, which you have given: and a number of other such things you do. And turning to the people again, he said to them, Give ear to me all of you, and let my words be clear to you: There is nothing outside the man which, going into him, is able to make him unclean: but the things which come out of the man are those which make the man unclean. This verse ommitted from translation And when he had gone into the house away from all the people, his disciples put questions to him about the saying. And he said to them, Have even you so little wisdom? Do you not see that whatever goes into a man from outside is not able to make him unclean, Because it goes not into the heart but into the stomach, and goes out with the waste? He said this, making all food clean.
Because it goes not into the heart but into the stomach, and goes out with the waste? He said this, making all food clean. And he said, That which comes out of the man, that makes the man unclean. read more. Because from inside, from the heart of men, come evil thoughts and unclean pleasures, The taking of goods and of life, broken faith between husband and wife, the desire of wealth, wrongdoing, deceit, sins of the flesh, an evil eye, angry words, pride, foolish acts: All these evil things come from inside, and make the man unclean.
But he kept quiet and said nothing. Again the high priest questioning him said, Are you the Christ, the son of the Holy One?
And when, after eight days, the time came for his circumcision, he was named Jesus, the name which the angel had given to him before his birth.
And the book of the prophet Isaiah was given to him and, opening the book, he came on the place where it is said, The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because I am marked out by him to give good news to the poor; he has sent me to make well those who are broken-hearted; to say that the prisoners will be let go, and the blind will see, and to make the wounded free from their chains, read more. To give knowledge that the year of the Lord's good pleasure is come. And shutting the book he gave it back to the servant and took his seat: and the eyes of all in the Synagogue were fixed on him. Then he said to them, Today this word has come true in your hearing.
And a certain teacher of the law got up and put him to the test, saying, Master, what have I to do so that I may have eternal life? And he said to him, What does the law say, in your reading of it? read more. And he, answering, said, Have love for the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind; and for your neighbour as for yourself. And he said, You have given the right answer: do this and you will have life. But he, desiring to put himself in the right, said to Jesus, And who is my neighbour? And Jesus, answering him, said, A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he got into the hands of thieves, who took his clothing and gave him cruel blows, and when they went away, he was half dead. And by chance a certain priest was going down that way: and when he saw him, he went by on the other side. And in the same way, a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, went by on the other side. But a certain man of Samaria, journeying that way, came where he was, and when he saw him, he was moved with pity for him, And came to him and put clean linen round his wounds, with oil and wine; and he put him on his beast and took him to a house and took care of him. And the day after he took two pennies and gave them to the owner of the house and said, Take care of him; and if this money is not enough, when I come again I will give you whatever more is needed. Which of these three men, in your opinion, was neighbour to the man who came into the hands of thieves? And he said, The one who had mercy on him. And Jesus said, Go and do the same.
Now, while he was talking, a Pharisee made a request that he would come to a meal with him; and he went in and took his seat at the meal. And when the Pharisee saw it, he was surprised because he came to the meal without first washing himself. read more. And the Lord said to him, You Pharisees make the outside of the cup and the plate clean; but inside you are thieves and full of evil. O you foolish ones! did not he who made the outside in the same way make the inside? But if you give to the poor such things as you are able, then all things are clean to you.
And is it not right for this daughter of Abraham, who has been in the power of Satan for eighteen years, to be made free on the Sabbath? And when he said these things, those who were against him were shamed, and all the people were full of joy because of the great things which were done by him.
The law and the prophets were till John: but then came the preaching of the kingdom of God, and everyone makes his way into it by force.
For I say to you that these words will be put into effect in me, And he was numbered among the evil-doers: for what has been said in the Writings about me has an end.
And he made clear to them all the things in the Writings, from Moses and from all the prophets, which had to do with himself.
For the law was given through Moses; grace and the true way of life are ours through Jesus Christ.
For the law was given through Moses; grace and the true way of life are ours through Jesus Christ.
As the snake was lifted up by Moses in the waste land, even so it is necessary for the Son of man to be lifted up:
And the man became well straight away, and took up his bed and went. Now that day was the Sabbath. So the Jews said to the man who had been made well, It is the Sabbath; and it is against the law for you to take up your bed. read more. He said to them, But he who made me well, said to me, Take up your bed and go. Then they put to him the question: Who is the man who said to you, Take it up and go? Now he who had been made well had no knowledge who it was, Jesus having gone away because of the number of people who were in that place. After a time Jesus came across him in the Temple and said to him, See, you are well and strong; do no more sin for fear a worse thing comes to you. The man went away and said to the Jews that it was Jesus who had made him well. And for this reason the Jews were turned against Jesus, because he was doing these things on the Sabbath. But his answer was: My Father is still working even now, and so I am working. For this cause the Jews had an even greater desire to put Jesus to death, because not only did he not keep the Sabbath but he said God was his Father, so making himself equal with God. So Jesus made answer and said, Truly I say to you, The Son is not able to do anything himself; he is able to do only what he sees the Father doing; whatever the Father does the Son does it in the same way. For the Father has love for the Son and lets him see everything which he does: and he will let him see greater works than these so that you may be full of wonder.
The writings of the prophets say, And they will all have teaching from God. Everyone whose ears have been open to the teaching of the Father comes to me.
I am the living bread which has come from heaven: if any man takes this bread for food he will have life for ever: and more than this, the bread which I will give is my flesh which I will give for the life of the world.
Are you greater than our father Abraham, who is dead? and the prophets are dead: who do you say that you are?
Then some of the Pharisees said, That man has not come from God, for he does not keep the Sabbath. Others said, How is it possible for a sinner to do such signs? So there was a division among them.
So they sent a second time for the man who had been blind and they said to him, Give glory to God: it is clear to us that this man is a sinner.
In answer, Jesus said, Is there not a saying in your law, I said, You are gods?
But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, You have no knowledge of anything;
Truly I say to you, If a seed of grain does not go into the earth and come to an end, it is still a seed and no more; but through its death it gives much fruit.
Then the people in answer said to him, The law says that the Christ will have life without end: how say you then that it is necessary for the Son of man to be lifted up? Who is this Son of man?
This comes about so that the writing in their law may be made true, Their hate for me was without cause.
And the Jews made answer, We have a law, and by that law it is right for him to be put to death because he said he was the Son of God.
And so, let it be clear to you, my brothers, that through this man forgiveness of sins is offered to you:
What, then, may we say that Abraham, our father after the flesh, has got? For if Abraham got righteousness by works, he has reason for pride; but not before God. read more. But what does it say in the holy Writings? And Abraham had faith in God, and it was put to his account as righteousness. Now, the reward is credited to him who does works, not as of grace but as a debt. But to him who without working has faith in him who gives righteousness to the evil-doer, his faith is put to his account as righteousness.
And the law came in addition, to make wrongdoing worse; but where there was much sin, there was much more grace:
What then is to be said? is the law sin? in no way. But I would not have had knowledge of sin but for the law: for I would not have been conscious of desire if the law had not said, You may not have a desire for what is another's. But sin, taking its chance through that which was ordered by the law, was working in me every form of desire: because without the law sin is dead. read more. And there was a time when I was living without the law: but when the law gave its orders, sin came to life and put me to death; And I made the discovery that the law whose purpose was to give life had become a cause of death: For I was tricked and put to death by sin, which took its chance through the law. But the law is holy, and its orders are holy, upright, and good.
But the law is holy, and its orders are holy, upright, and good. Was then that which is good, death to me? In no way. But the purpose was that sin might be seen to be sin by working death to me through that which is good; so that through the orders of the law sin might seem much more evil.
Was then that which is good, death to me? In no way. But the purpose was that sin might be seen to be sin by working death to me through that which is good; so that through the orders of the law sin might seem much more evil. For we are conscious that the law is of the spirit; but I am of the flesh, given into the power of sin. read more. And I have no clear knowledge of what I am doing, for that which I have a mind to do, I do not, but what I have hate for, that I do. But, if I do that which I have no mind to do, I am in agreement with the law that the law is good. So it is no longer I who do it, but the sin living in me. For I am conscious that in me, that is, in my flesh, there is nothing good: I have the mind but not the power to do what is right. For the good which I have a mind to do, I do not: but the evil which I have no mind to do, that I do. But if I do what I have no mind to do, it is no longer I who do it, but the sin living in me. So I see a law that, though I have a mind to do good, evil is present in me. In my heart I take pleasure in the law of God, But I see another law in my body, working against the law of my mind, and making me the servant of the law of sin which is in my flesh. How unhappy am I! who will make me free from the body of this death?
For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death. For what the law was not able to do because it was feeble through the flesh, God, sending his Son in the image of the evil flesh, and as an offering for sin, gave his decision against sin in the flesh:
But Israel, going after a law of righteousness, did not get it.
Because, not having knowledge of God's righteousness, and desiring to give effect to their righteousness, they have not put themselves under the righteousness of God.
But to the married I give orders, though not I but the Lord, that the wife may not go away from her husband
And we have given up the secret things of shame, not walking in false ways, and not making use of the word of God with deceit; but by the revelation of what is true, as before God, we have the approval of every man's sense of right and wrong.
For I, through the law, have become dead to the law, so that I might be living to God.
Is the law then against the words of God? in no way; because if there had been a law which was able to give life, truly righteousness would have been by the law.
So the law has been a servant to take us to Christ, so that we might have righteousness by faith.
But I say that as long as the son is a child, he is in no way different from a servant, though he is lord of all; But is under keepers and managers till the time fixed by the father. read more. So we, when we were young, were kept under the first rules of the world; But when the time had come, God sent out his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,
But when the time had come, God sent out his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, That he might make them free who were under the law, and that we might be given the place of sons.
Take on yourselves one another's troubles, and so keep the law of Christ.
And be seen in him, not having my righteousness which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
And be seen in him, not having my righteousness which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
Let no man take your reward from you by consciously making little of himself and giving worship to angels; having his thoughts fixed on the things which he has seen, being foolishly lifted up in his natural mind,
And Moses certainly kept faith as a servant, in all his house, and as a witness of those things which were to be said later;