Reference: Romans, The Epistle To The
AUTHENTICITY, GENUINENESS. Peter (2Pe 3:15-16) quotes Ro 2:4, calling it "Scripture." The epistles of Clement (Cor. 35) and Polycarp (ad Philippians 6) quote respectively Ro 1:29-32 and Ro 14:10-12. Irenaeus (iv. 27, section 2) quotes it as Paul's (Ro 4:10-11). Melito's "Hearing of Faith" is entitled from Romans 10 or Ga 3:2-3. The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. Haer. 99; Ro 1:20-26); Basilides (238, Ro 8:19-22; 5:13-14); Valentinus (195, Ro 8:11); the Valentinians Heracleon and Ptolemaeus; Tatian (Orat. 4, Ro 1:20), and Marcion's canon. The epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eusebius, H. E. v. 1; Ro 8:18); Athenagoras (13, Ro 12:1,21; 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol. 79, Ro 2:6,29; 13:7-8). Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it.
DATE AND PLACE OF WRITING. Paul wrote while at Corinth, for he commends to the Romans Phoebe, deaconess of Cenchreae, the port of Corinth (Ro 16:1-2). He was lodging at Gaius' house (Ro 16:23), a chief member of the Corinthian church (1Co 1:14). Erastus, "treasurer" ("chamberlain", KJV), belonged to Corinth (2Ti 4:20; Ac 19:22). The time was during his visit in the winter and spring following his long stay at Ephesus (Ro 16:27); for he was just about to carry the contributions of Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem (Ro 15:25-27; compare Ac 20:22), just after his stay at Corinth at this time (Ac 24:17; 1Co 16:4; 2Co 8:1-2; 9:1, etc.). His design of visiting Rome after Jerusalem (Ro 15:23-25) at this particular time appears incidentally from Ac 19:21. Thus, Paul wrote it in his third missionary journey, at the second of the two visas to Corinth recorded in Acts. He remained then three months in Greece.
He was on the point of sailing to Jerusalem when obliged to alter his purpose; the sea therefore was by this time navigable. It was not late in the spring, for, after passing through Macedon and visiting the coast of Asia Minor, he still expected to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Ac 20:16). He must therefore have written the epistle to the Romans early in spring, A.D. 58. Thus, it is logically connected with the epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians. He wrote 1 Corinthians before leaving Ephesus; 2 Corinthians on his way to Corinth; and Galatians at Corinth, where also he wrote Romans. Hence, the resemblance of these two epistles in style and substance. The epistle to the Galatians and the two almost contemporaneous epistles to the Corinthians are the most intense in feeling and varied in expression of Paul's epistles.
OCCASION. Intending long to visit Rome and Spain (Ro 1:9-13; 15:22-29), he was for the present unable, being bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians. But, as Phoebe a deaconess of the neighbouring Cenchreae was starting for Rome (Ro 16:1-2), he sends meantime this epistle by her. Tertius wrote it at his dictation (Ro 16:22), the apostle with his own hand, as in other epistles, probably adding the benediction and abrupt doxology at the close. Had Peter or any other apostle founded the church at Rome, some allusion to him would have occurred in this epistle or in Paul's epistles written at Rome. Moreover Paul's rule was not to build on another's foundation (Ro 15:20). Also in dividing the field of labour between himself and Peter (Ga 2:7-9), as apostle of the Gentiles he claims the Romans as his share (Ro 1:13) and hopes to confer some "spiritual gift" (charism) on them to establish them; implying that heretofore no apostle had been with them to do so (Ro 1:11; compare Ac 8:14-17).
The date of the introduction of Christianity at Rome must have been very early. Andronicus and Junia were "in Christ" even before Paul. Probably of the Roman strangers or pilgrim sojourners at Jerusalem (Ac 2:10) who heard Peter's sermon at Pentecost, some were among the converts, and brought back the gospel to the metropolis. (See RUFUS.) In this sense Peter founded the church at Rome, though having never yet visited it. The constant contact between Judaea and Rome through commerce, the passing of soldiers back and forward from Caesarea, and the repairing of Jewish settlers at Rome to Jerusalem for the three great feasts, ensured an early entrance of the gospel into Rome. Hence too at first the church there had that tinge of Judaism which this epistle corrects. Its members were in part Jews originally, in part Gentiles (compare as to the Jewish element Romans 2; Romans 3; Romans 7; Romans 9; Ro 11:13). A considerable number saluted in Romans 16 were Jew-Christians: Mary, Aquila, Priscilla, Andronicus and Junia, Paul's kinsmen, Herodion, Apelles, Aristobulus (of the Herodian family).
The Jews at Rome were so numerous that Augustus assigned them a separate quarter beyond the Tiber, and permitted them freely to exercise their religion (Philo, Leg. ad Caium, 568). That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Ro 1:5,13; 9:3-4; 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus manuscripts read for "Israel"), Ro 11:23,25,30. But the Gentiles of this church were not Latin, but Greek. The literature of the early Roman church was written in Greek; the names of its bishops are almost all Greek. The early Latin versions of the New Testament were made for the provinces, especially Africa, nor Rome. The names in the salutations (Romans 16) are generally Greek; and the Latin names, Aquila, Priscilla, Junia, Rufus, were Jews. Julia (of the imperial household), Amplias, and Urbanus, are the few exceptions.
The Greeks were the most enterprising and intelligent of the middle and lower classes at Rome. Juvenal alludes satirically to their numbers and versatility (iii. 60-80; vi. 184); their intellectual restlessness made them sit loosely to traditional superstitions, and to be more open than others to inquire into the claims of Christianity. Many of the names (Romans 16) are found in the lists of freedmen and slaves of the early Roman emperors, "they of Caesar's household" (Php 4:22). (See PALACE.) From the lower and middle classes, petty tradesmen, merchants, and army officers, the gospel gradually worked upward; still "not many wise ... mighty ... noble were called" (1Co 1:26). The legend of Peter and Paul presiding together over the church at Rome probably represents the combination of Jews and Gentiles in it. The joint episcopate of Linus and Cletus subsequently may be explained by supposing one ruled over the Jewish, the other over the Gentile congregation; this gives point to the general argument of Romans 1-3 and Ro 10:12, that there is no respect of nationality with God. Accordingly, the epistle has the character of a general treatise.
The metropolitan church was the fittest one to whom to address such a general exposition of doctrine, at the same time the injunction of obedience to temporal rulers was appropriate at the head quarters of the imperial government (Ro 13:1). The epistles to Corinthians and Galatians, immediately preceding chronologically, are full of personal references. The epistle to the Romans summarizes what he had just written; namely, epistle to Corinthians representing the attitude of the gospel to the Gentile world, the epistle to Galatians its relation to Judaism. What was in these two epistles immediately drawn out by special Judaizing errors of the Galatians, and Gentile licence of the Corinthians, is in Romans methodically combined together add arranged for general application.
The doctrine of justification by faith only on the one hand is stated (Romans 1-5) as in Galatians; on the other antinomianism is condemned (Romans 6); and the avoidance of giving offence as to meats (Romans 14) answers to 1Co 6:12, etc., 1Co 8:1, etc. Alexandrinus manuscript transposes the doxology Ro 16:25-27 (which Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts keep as KJV) to the close of Romans 14. Probably the epistle was circulated in two forms, both with and without the two last chapters. The form without them removed the personal allusions which manuscript G still more divested it
Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and Romans who sojourn here, both Jews and Proselytes,
And the apostles at Jerusalem, hearing that Samaria had received the word of God, sent to them Peter and John; who, having come down, prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit. read more. For it had not yet fallen upon any of them; but they had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit.
And when these things were ended, Paul resolved to pass through Macedonia and Achaia, and to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome. And having sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered to him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a season.
For Paul had determined to sail past Ephesus, that he might not be detained in Asia; for he was hastening, if it were possible for him, to be at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.
And now behold, I go, bound in my spirit, to Jerusalem, not knowing the things that will befall me there;
And after some years I came to bring alms to my nation, and to make offerings;
Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, a called apostle, set apart to preach the gospel of God, which he had promised before by his prophets in the Holy Scriptures, read more. the gospel concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David as to the flesh, and shown with power to be the Son of God as to his spirit of holiness, by the resurrection of the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord; through whom we received grace and the office of an apostle in behalf of his name, in order to produce obedience to the faith among all nations;
through whom we received grace and the office of an apostle in behalf of his name, in order to produce obedience to the faith among all nations; among whom are ye also, the called of Jesus Christ; read more. to all the beloved of God at Rome, called, holy: Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
to all the beloved of God at Rome, called, holy: Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. In the first place, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. read more. For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how constantly I make mention of you, always in my prayers
For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how constantly I make mention of you, always in my prayers supplicating that, if it be possible, I may at last through the will of God be favored with an opportunity of coming to you.
supplicating that, if it be possible, I may at last through the will of God be favored with an opportunity of coming to you. For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, which may be for your confirmation;
For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, which may be for your confirmation;
For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, which may be for your confirmation; that is, that I may be edified among you, and you also, through each others faith, both yours and mine.
that is, that I may be edified among you, and you also, through each others faith, both yours and mine. But I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered hitherto, that I might have some fruit of my labors among you also, as among the other gentiles.
But I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered hitherto, that I might have some fruit of my labors among you also, as among the other gentiles.
But I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered hitherto, that I might have some fruit of my labors among you also, as among the other gentiles.
But I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that I often purposed to come to you, though I have been hindered hitherto, that I might have some fruit of my labors among you also, as among the other gentiles. I am debtor both to Greeks and barbarians, both to the wise and the unwise. read more. So, according to my ability, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also in Rome.
So, according to my ability, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also in Rome. For I am not ashamed of the gospel; for to every believer, to the Jew first and also to the Greek, it is the power of God unto salvation. read more. For therein is revealed the righteousness which is of God from faith to faith; as it is written, "But the righteous shall live by faith."
For, ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes, even his eternal power and divinity, being perceived from his works, are clearly seen, so that they might be without excuse.
For, ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes, even his eternal power and divinity, being perceived from his works, are clearly seen, so that they might be without excuse. Because though they knew God, they did not glorify him as God, nor were they thankful to him; but became perverse in their reasonings, and their senseless minds were darkened; read more. professing to be wise, they became fools, and for the glory of the incorruptible God they substituted images of corruptible man, and of birds and fourfooted beasts and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to debase their bodies with one another;
Wherefore God also gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to debase their bodies with one another; because they changed the true God for false gods, and adored and worshipped created things rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. read more. For this cause God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women indulged in unnatural lust,
being filled with all unrighteousness, malice, covetousness, wickedness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; backbiters, slanderers, hated of God, insolent, proud, boasters, inventors of mischief, disobedient to parents, read more. senseless, faithless, without natural affection, without pity; who, although knowing the ordinance of God, that they who practise such things deserve death, not only do them themselves, but approve of those who do them.
Or dost thou despise the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering, not knowing that the goodness of God is leading thee to repentance?
who will render to every one according to his works;
but he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is of the heart, spiritual, not literal, whose praise is not of men, but of God.
What then is the advantage of the Jew? or what the benefit of circumcision? Great, every way. In the first place, because they were entrusted with the oracles of God. read more. For what? If some were unfaithful, shall their unfaithfulness make God unfaithful? Far be it! yea, let God be true, and every man a liar; as it is written, "That thou mayst be justified in thy words, and mayst overcome when thou art arraigned." But if our unrighteousness serve to display the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous who inflicteth punishment? (I am speaking as men do.) Far be it! For then how shall God judge the world? For if, through my being false, the truth of God hath been more abundantly manifested to his glory, why am I still judged as a sinner? And why do you not say, as some slanderously charge us with saying, Let us do evil, that good may come? The condemnation of such men is just. What then? Are we better than others? By no means! For we have already brought a charge both against Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. As it is written: "There is none righteous, no, not one; there is none that hath understanding, there is none that diligently seeketh God; they have all turned aside from the right way, they have become worthless together; there is none that doeth good, not even one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have practised deceit. The poison of asps is under their lips. Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. Swift are their feet to shed blood; destruction and misery are in their ways; and the way of peace they know not. There is no fear of God before their eyes." Now we know that whatever the Law saith, it saith to those who are under the Law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world become subject to condemnation before God. Because by works of the Law no flesh shall be accepted as righteous: for by the Law is the knowledge of sin. But now, apart from the Law, the righteousness which is of God, to which the Law and the Prophets bear testimony, even the righteousness which is of God through faith in Jesus Christ, hath been made manifest to all and for all believers. For there is no distinction. For all have sinned, and fail of obtaining the glory which cometh from God; being accepted as righteous freely, by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom, in his blood, through faith, God hath set forth as a propitiatory sacrifice, in order to manifest his righteousness, on account of his passing by, in his forbearance, the sins committed in former times; in order to manifest his righteousness at the present time, so that he may be righteous, and accept as righteous him who hath faith. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay; but by the law of faith. We conclude therefore, that a man is accepted as righteous through faith, without the works of the Law. Or is God [the God] of Jews alone? Is he not also the God of gentiles? Yea, of gentiles also. Seeing there is but one God, who will accept the circumcised as righteous by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. Do we then make void the Law through faith? Far be it! On the contrary, we establish the Law.
How then was it so accounted? After his circumcision, or while he was uncircumcised? Not after he was circumcised, but while he was uncircumcised. And he received the outward sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all the uncircumcised who have faith, so that righteousness might be put to their account also;
Therefore being accepted as righteous through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ; through whom also we have had admission into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in the hope of the glory which God will confer. read more. And not only so, but we rejoice in afflictions also, knowing that affliction produceth endurance, and endurance proof [of faith], and proof [of faith giveth] hope; and hope will not disappoint us; because the love of God hath been shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit which hath been given to us. For while we were yet without strength, in due season Christ died for the ungodly. Now hardly for a righteous man will one die; perhaps, however, for a benefactor one might even dare to die. But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, being now accepted as righteous through his blood, we shall be saved through him from the [coming] wrath. For if while enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more having been reconciled shall we be saved by his life; and not this only, but also having joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. So then as through one man sin entered into the world, and through sin death, and thus [death] came through unto all men, because all sinned (for all the time before the Law sin was in the world; but sin is not set to ones account when there is no law.
(for all the time before the Law sin was in the world; but sin is not set to ones account when there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the manner in which Adam transgressed; who is a type of him who was to come.
Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the manner in which Adam transgressed; who is a type of him who was to come. But the free gift was not as the transgression. For if through the offence of the one the many died, much more hath the grace of God, and the gift which is by the grace of the one man Jesus Christ, abounded to the many. read more. And the free gift is not like what happened through one man who sinned. For sentence of condemnation followed one offence; but the free gift is a justification after many offences. For if by one trespass death reigned through the one man, much more will they who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ.) As then through one trespass all men have come under condemnation, so through one act of righteousness all obtain the gift of righteousness unto life. For as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so through the obedience of the one man will the many be made righteous. Moreover the law came in in addition, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace abounded much more; that as sin reigned in death, so grace might reign through righteousness to everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwelleth in you, he who raised up Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies, because of his Spirit that dwelleth in you.
For I esteem the sufferings of the present time as of no account, when compared with the glory which is about to be revealed to us. For the earnest expectation of the creation is waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God. read more. For the creation was brought into subjection to vanity not of its own will, but by reason of him who put it into subjection, in hope that even the creation itself will be set free from the bondage of corruption and brought into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation is together groaning and suffering the pains of labor, up to this time;
For I could wish to be myself accursed and cast out from Christ in behalf of my brethren, my kinsmen as to the flesh; who are Israelites; whom God adopted as sons, whose was the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the Law, and the service of the sanctuary, and the promises;
Brethren, the desire of my heart and my prayer to God for them is, that they may be saved.
For there is no difference between Jew and Greek; for one and the same is Lord over all, rich to all that call upon him.
For I am speaking to you gentiles; inasmuch as I am the apostle of the gentiles, I magnify my office,
And they also, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in; for God is able to graft them in again.
For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits, that blindness hath to some extent come upon Israel, until the fullness of the gentiles shall have come in.
For as ye in times past were disobedient to God, but have now obtained mercy through their disobedience,
I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, wellpleasing to God, which is your spiritual worship;
Be not overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
Let every one submit to the authorities that are over him; for there is no authority which is not from God: and the authorities which exist have been ordained by God.
Render to all what is due to them; tribute, to whom tribute is due; custom, to whom custom; fear, to whom fear; honor, to whom honor. Owe no one anything but brotherly love; for he that loveth others hath fulfilled the Law.
But thou, why dost thou judge thy brother? And thou, too, why dost thou despise thy brother? For we shall all stand before the judgmentseat of God. For it is written, "As I live, saith the Lord, to me every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall give praise to God." read more. So then every one of us will give account of himself to God.
But I myself am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye are even of yourselves full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another. But I have written to you, brethren, in a manner somewhat bold on some subjects, as putting you in mind, on account of the grace given me by God read more. that I should be a minister of Christ Jesus to the gentiles, performing the office of a priest in respect to the gospel of God, that the oblation of the gentiles may be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit. I have then ground for glorying in Christ Jesus in regard to the things pertaining m God. For I will not be bold to say anything hut of what Christ hath actually wrought by me to bring the gentiles to obedience by word and deed, by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and in the country around even to Illyricum, I have fully made known the gospel of Christ; but always earnestly desirous to preach it in this manner,not where Christ had been named, that I might not build on anothers foundation,
but always earnestly desirous to preach it in this manner,not where Christ had been named, that I might not build on anothers foundation, but, as it is written: "They, to whom no tidings concerning him came, shall see; and they that have not heard shall understand." read more. For which cause also, for the most part, I have been hindered from coming to you.
For which cause also, for the most part, I have been hindered from coming to you. But now having no more opportunity in these regions, and having had for many years a great desire to come to you,
But now having no more opportunity in these regions, and having had for many years a great desire to come to you,
But now having no more opportunity in these regions, and having had for many years a great desire to come to you, when I go to Spain, I will come to you; for I hope to see you on my way, and to be helped forward thither by you, after I have in some degree satisfied myself with your company.
when I go to Spain, I will come to you; for I hope to see you on my way, and to be helped forward thither by you, after I have in some degree satisfied myself with your company.
when I go to Spain, I will come to you; for I hope to see you on my way, and to be helped forward thither by you, after I have in some degree satisfied myself with your company. But now I am going to Jerusalem on a service of relief to the saints.
But now I am going to Jerusalem on a service of relief to the saints.
But now I am going to Jerusalem on a service of relief to the saints.
But now I am going to Jerusalem on a service of relief to the saints. For Macedonia and Achaia have thought it good to make a contribution for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem.
For Macedonia and Achaia have thought it good to make a contribution for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem.
For Macedonia and Achaia have thought it good to make a contribution for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem. They have thought it good, and they owed it to them. For if the gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they ought in return to minister to them in temporal things.
They have thought it good, and they owed it to them. For if the gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they ought in return to minister to them in temporal things.
They have thought it good, and they owed it to them. For if the gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they ought in return to minister to them in temporal things. When therefore I have completed this business, and secured to them this fruit, I shall set out to pass through you to Spain.
When therefore I have completed this business, and secured to them this fruit, I shall set out to pass through you to Spain. And I know that when I come to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.
And I know that when I come to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ. But I beseech you, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love produced by the Spirit, that ye strive together with me in prayers to God for me; read more. that I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judaea, and that my service for Jerusalem may prove acceptable to the saints; so that, through the will of God, I may come to you in joy, and may with you be refreshed. And may the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a deaconess of the church at Cenchreae;
I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a deaconess of the church at Cenchreae; that ye may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the holy, and assist her in whatever business she may need your aid; for she hath been a helper of many, and of myself also.
that ye may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the holy, and assist her in whatever business she may need your aid; for she hath been a helper of many, and of myself also.
I Tertius, who wrote this letter, salute you in the Lord. Gaius my host, and the host of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the treasurer of the city saluteth you, and Quartus, the brother.
Now to him who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which for eternal ages was unrevealed, but is now made manifest, and through the writings of the prophets, by the command of the everlasting God, is made known to all the nations to bring them to obedience to the faith, read more. to God, the only wise, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory for ever! Amen.
to God, the only wise, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory for ever! Amen.
I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;
For consider, brethren, who ye are that have been called; not many wise men after the fashion of the world, not many mighty, not many noble;
All things are lawful for me, but all things are not profitable; all things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the power of anything.
Now concerning the things offered in sacrifice to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up, but love edifieth;
But on the contrary, when they saw that I was intrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, as Peter was with that to the circumcised, (for he who wrought for Peter in behalf of the apostleship to the circumcised, wrought also for me in behalf of the gentiles,) read more. and when they knew the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the gentiles, and they to the circumcised;
This only I desire to learn from you: Was it from the works of the Law that ye received the Spirit, or by the preaching of faith? Are ye so foolish? Having begun with the Spirit, do ye now end with the flesh?
Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints who are [in Ephesus], and believers in Christ Jesus:
All the saints salute you, but especially they who are of Caesars household.
Erastus remained at Corinth, but Trophimus I left at Miletus sick.
and account the longsuffering of our Lord salvation; as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, wrote to you, as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things; in which things are some that are hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as also the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.