1. That the 'law was given by Moses' (Joh 1:17) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel's career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2. We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Ex 18:16, where Moses explains how 'the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws (t
when they have a matter, it hath come unto me, and I have judged between a man and his neighbour, and made known the statutes of God, and His laws.'
And Jehovah saith unto Moses, 'Thus dost thou say unto the sons of Israel: Ye -- ye have seen that from the heavens I have spoken with you;
then hath his lord brought him nigh unto God, and hath brought him nigh unto the door, or unto the side-post, and his lord hath bored his ear with an awl, and he hath served him -- to the age.
'When a man doth give unto his neighbour silver, or vessels to keep, and it hath been stolen out of the man's house; if the thief is found, he repayeth double.
they do not dwell in thy land, lest they cause thee to sin against Me when thou servest their gods, when it becometh a snare to thee.'
Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; and thou hast loved Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might,
And the king of Jericho sendeth unto Rahab, saying, 'Bring out the men who are coming in unto thee, who have come into thy house, for to search the whole of the land they have come in.
If a man sin against a man, then hath God judged him; but if against Jehovah a man sin, who doth pray for him?' and they hearken not to the voice of their father, though Jehovah hath delighted to put them to death.
Thus said Jehovah of Hosts, God of Israel, Your burnt-offerings add to your sacrifices, And eat ye flesh. For I did not speak with your fathers, Nor did I command them in the day of My bringing them out of the land of Egypt, Concerning the matters of burnt-offering and sacrifice,
Lo, days are coming, an affirmation of Jehovah, And I have made with the house of Israel And with the house of Judah a new covenant, Not like the covenant that I made with their fathers, In the day of My laying hold on their hand, To bring them out of the land of Egypt, In that they made void My covenant, And I ruled over them -- an affirmation of Jehovah. read more. For this is the covenant that I make, With the house of Israel, after those days, An affirmation of Jehovah, I have given My law in their inward part, And on their heart I do write it, And I have been to them for God, And they are to me for a people. And they do not teach any more Each his neighbour, and each his brother, Saying, Know ye Jehovah, For they all know Me, from their least unto their greatest, An affirmation of Jehovah; For I pardon their iniquity, And of their sin I make mention no more.
Round about is eighteen thousand, and the renown of the city is from the day Jehovah is there.'
I write for him numerous things of My law, As a strange thing they have been reckoned.
And roll on as waters doth judgment, And righteousness as a perennial stream. Sacrifices and offering did ye bring nigh to Me, In a wilderness forty years, O house of Israel? read more. And ye bare Succoth your king, and Chiun your images, The star of your god, that ye made for yourselves.
But Jesus answering said to him, 'Suffer now, for thus it is becoming to us to fulfil all righteousness,' then he doth suffer him.
Do not suppose that I came to throw down the law or the prophets -- I did not come to throw down, but to fulfil;
Do not suppose that I came to throw down the law or the prophets -- I did not come to throw down, but to fulfil; for, verily I say to you, till that the heaven and the earth may pass away, one iota or one tittle may not pass away from the law, till that all may come to pass.
for, verily I say to you, till that the heaven and the earth may pass away, one iota or one tittle may not pass away from the law, till that all may come to pass.
for, verily I say to you, till that the heaven and the earth may pass away, one iota or one tittle may not pass away from the law, till that all may come to pass. Whoever therefore may loose one of these commands -- the least -- and may teach men so, least he shall be called in the reign of the heavens, but whoever may do and may teach them, he shall be called great in the reign of the heavens. read more. 'For I say to you, that if your righteousness may not abound above that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye may not enter to the reign of the heavens. 'Ye heard that it was said to the ancients: Thou shalt not kill, and whoever may kill shall be in danger of the judgment; but I -- I say to you, that every one who is angry at his brother without cause, shall be in danger of the judgment, and whoever may say to his brother, Empty fellow! shall be in danger of the sanhedrim, and whoever may say, Rebel! shall be in danger of the gehenna of the fire. 'If, therefore, thou mayest bring thy gift to the altar, and there mayest remember that thy brother hath anything against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, and go -- first be reconciled to thy brother, and then having come bring thy gift. 'Be agreeing with thy opponent quickly, while thou art in the way with him, that the opponent may not deliver thee to the judge, and the judge may deliver thee to the officer, and to prison thou mayest be cast, verily I say to thee, thou mayest not come forth thence till that thou mayest pay the last farthing. 'Ye heard that it was said to the ancients: Thou shalt not commit adultery; but I -- I say to you, that every one who is looking on a woman to desire her, did already commit adultery with her in his heart. 'But, if thy right eye doth cause thee to stumble, pluck it out and cast from thee, for it is good to thee that one of thy members may perish, and not thy whole body be cast to gehenna. 'And, if thy right hand doth cause thee to stumble, cut it off, and cast from thee, for it is good to thee that one of thy members may perish, and not thy whole body be cast to gehenna. 'And it was said, That whoever may put away his wife, let him give to her a writing of divorce; but I -- I say to you, that whoever may put away his wife, save for the matter of whoredom, doth make her to commit adultery; and whoever may marry her who hath been put away doth commit adultery. 'Again, ye heard that it was said to the ancients: Thou shalt not swear falsely, but thou shalt pay to the Lord thine oaths; but I -- I say to you, not to swear at all; neither by the heaven, because it is the throne of God, nor by the earth, because it is His footstool, nor by Jerusalem, because it is a city of a great king, nor by thy head mayest thou swear, because thou art not able one hair to make white or black; but let your word be, Yes, Yes, No, No, and that which is more than these is of the evil. 'Ye heard that it was said: Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth; but I -- I say to you, not to resist the evil, but whoever shall slap thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other; and whoever is willing to take thee to law, and thy coat to take -- suffer to him also the cloak. 'And whoever shall impress thee one mile, go with him two, to him who is asking of thee be giving, and him who is willing to borrow from thee thou mayest not turn away. 'Ye heard that it was said: Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and shalt hate thine enemy; but I -- I say to you, Love your enemies, bless those cursing you, do good to those hating you, and pray for those accusing you falsely, and persecuting you, that ye may be sons of your Father in the heavens, because His sun He doth cause to rise on evil and good, and He doth send rain on righteous and unrighteous. 'For, if ye may love those loving you, what reward have ye? do not also the tax-gatherers the same? and if ye may salute your brethren only, what do ye abundant? do not also the tax-gatherers so? ye shall therefore be perfect, as your Father who is in the heavens is perfect.
And it came to pass, when Jesus ended these words, the multitudes were astonished at his teaching,
And Jesus saith to him, 'See, thou mayest tell no one, but go, thyself shew to the priest, and bring the gift that Moses commanded for a testimony to them.'
'Or did ye not read in the Law, that on the sabbaths the priests in the temple do profane the sabbath, and are blameless? and I say to you, that a greater than the temple is here;
And he said to them, 'What man shall be of you, who shall have one sheep, and if this may fall on the sabbaths into a ditch, will not lay hold on it and raise it?
'But if I, by the Spirit of God, do cast out the demons, then come already unto you did the reign of God. 'Or how is one able to go into the house of the strong man, and to plunder his goods, if first he may not bind the strong man? and then his house he will plunder. read more. 'He who is not with me is against me, and he who is not gathering with me, doth scatter.
'A queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it, for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and lo, a greater than Solomon here!
and he answering said, 'I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.'
but, that we may not cause them to stumble, having gone to the sea, cast a hook, and the fish that hath come up first take thou up, and having opened its mouth, thou shalt find a stater, that having taken, give to them for me and thee.'
And the Pharisees came near to him, tempting him, and saying to him, 'Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?' And he answering said to them, 'Did ye not read, that He who made them, from the beginning a male and a female made them, read more. and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and cleave to his wife, and they shall be -- the two -- for one flesh? so that they are no more two, but one flesh; what therefore God did join together, let no man put asunder.' They say to him, 'Why then did Moses command to give a roll of divorce, and to put her away?' He saith to them -- 'Moses for your stiffness of heart did suffer you to put away your wives, but from the beginning it hath not been so. 'And I say to you, that, whoever may put away his wife, if not for whoredom, and may marry another, doth commit adultery; and he who did marry her that hath been put away, doth commit adultery.'
even as the Son of Man did not come to be ministered to, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.'
and the Pharisees, having heard that he did silence the Sadducees, were gathered together unto him; and one of them, a lawyer, did question, tempting him, and saying, read more. Teacher, which is the great command in the Law?' And Jesus said to him, 'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thine understanding -- this is a first and great command; and the second is like to it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; on these -- the two commands -- all the law and the prophets do hang.'
for this is my blood of the new covenant, that for many is being poured out -- to remission of sins;
And it came to pass -- he is going along on the sabbaths through the corn-fields -- and his disciples began to make a way, plucking the ears, and the Pharisees said to him, 'Lo, why do they on the sabbaths that which is not lawful?' read more. And he said to them, 'Did ye never read what David did, when he had need and was hungry, he and those with him? how he went into the house of God, (at 'Abiathar the chief priest,') and the loaves of the presentation did eat, which it is not lawful to eat, except to the priests, and he gave also to those who were with him?' And he said to them, 'The sabbath for man was made, not man for the sabbath,
And he said to them, 'The sabbath for man was made, not man for the sabbath, so that the son of man is lord also of the sabbath.'
and they were watching him, whether on the sabbaths he will heal him, that they might accuse him.
and in vain do they worship Me, teaching teachings, commands of men; for, having put away the command of God, ye hold the tradition of men, baptisms of pots and cups; and many other such like things ye do.' read more. And he said to them, 'Well do ye put away the command of God that your tradition ye may keep; for Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, He who is speaking evil of father or mother -- let him die the death; and ye say, If a man may say to father or to mother, Korban (that is, a gift), is whatever thou mayest be profited out of mine, and no more do ye suffer him to do anything for his father or for his mother, setting aside the word of God for your tradition that ye delivered; and many such like things ye do.' And having called near all the multitude, he said to them, 'Hearken to me, ye all, and understand; there is nothing from without the man entering into him that is able to defile him, but the things coming out from him, those are the things defiling the man. If any hath ears to hear -- let him hear.' And when he entered into a house from the multitude, his disciples were questioning him about the simile, and he saith to them, 'So also ye are without understanding! Do ye not perceive that nothing from without entering into the man is able to defile him? because it doth not enter into his heart, but into the belly, and into the drain it doth go out, purifying all the meats.'
because it doth not enter into his heart, but into the belly, and into the drain it doth go out, purifying all the meats.' And he said -- 'That which is coming out from the man, that doth defile the man; read more. for from within, out of the heart of men, the evil reasonings do come forth, adulteries, whoredoms, murders, thefts, covetous desires, wickedness, deceit, arrogance, an evil eye, evil speaking, pride, foolishness; all these evils do come forth from within, and they defile the man.'
and he was keeping silent, and did not answer anything. Again the chief priest was questioning him, and saith to him, 'Art thou the Christ -- the Son of the Blessed?'
And when eight days were fulfilled to circumcise the child, then was his name called Jesus, having been so called by the messenger before his being conceived in the womb.
and there was given over to him a roll of Isaiah the prophet, and having unfolded the roll, he found the place where it hath been written: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, Because He did anoint me; To proclaim good news to the poor, Sent me to heal the broken of heart, To proclaim to captives deliverance, And to blind receiving of sight, To send away the bruised with deliverance, read more. To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.' And having folded the roll, having given it back to the officer, he sat down, and the eyes of all in the synagogue were gazing on him. And he began to say unto them -- 'To-day hath this writing been fulfilled in your ears;'
And lo, a certain lawyer stood up, trying him, and saying, 'Teacher, what having done, life age-during shall I inherit?' And he said unto him, 'In the law what hath been written? how dost thou read?' read more. And he answering said, 'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God out of all thy heart, and out of all thy soul, and out of all thy strength, and out of all thy understanding, and thy neighbour as thyself.' And he said to him, 'Rightly thou didst answer; this do, and thou shalt live.' And he, willing to declare himself righteous, said unto Jesus, 'And who is my neighbour?' and Jesus having taken up the word, said, 'A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among robbers, and having stripped him and inflicted blows, they went away, leaving him half dead. 'And by a coincidence a certain priest was going down in that way, and having seen him, he passed over on the opposite side; and in like manner also, a Levite, having been about the place, having come and seen, passed over on the opposite side. 'But a certain Samaritan, journeying, came along him, and having seen him, he was moved with compassion, and having come near, he bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine, and having lifted him up on his own beast, he brought him to an inn, and was careful of him; and on the morrow, going forth, taking out two denaries, he gave to the innkeeper, and said to him, Be careful of him, and whatever thou mayest spend more, I, in my coming again, will give back to thee. 'Who, then, of these three, seemeth to thee to have become neighbour of him who fell among the robbers?' and he said, 'He who did the kindness with him,' then Jesus said to him, 'Be going on, and thou be doing in like manner.'
And in his speaking, a certain Pharisee was asking him that he might dine with him, and having gone in, he reclined (at meat), and the Pharisee having seen, did wonder that he did not first baptize himself before the dinner. read more. And the Lord said unto him, 'Now do ye, the Pharisees, the outside of the cup and of the plate make clean, but your inward part is full of rapine and wickedness; unthinking! did not He who made the outside also the inside make? But what ye have give ye as alms, and, lo, all things are clean to you.
and this one, being a daughter of Abraham, whom the Adversary bound, lo, eighteen years, did it not behove to be loosed from this bond on the sabbath-day?' And he saying these things, all who were opposed to him were being ashamed, and all the multitude were rejoicing over all the glorious things that are being done by him.
the law and the prophets are till John; since then the reign of God is proclaimed good news, and every one doth press into it;
for I say to you, that yet this that hath been written it behoveth to be fulfilled in me: And with lawless ones he was reckoned, for also the things concerning me have an end.'
and having begun from Moses, and from all the prophets, he was expounding to them in all the Writings the things about himself.
for the law through Moses was given, the grace and the truth through Jesus Christ did come;
for the law through Moses was given, the grace and the truth through Jesus Christ did come;
'And as Moses did lift up the serpent in the wilderness, so it behoveth the Son of Man to be lifted up,
and immediately the man became whole, and he took up his couch, and was walking, and it was a sabbath on that day, the Jews then said to him that hath been healed, 'It is a sabbath; it is not lawful to thee to take up the couch.' read more. He answered them, 'He who made me whole -- that one said to me, Take up thy couch, and be walking;' they questioned him, then, 'Who is the man who is saying to thee, Take up thy couch and be walking?' But he that was healed had not known who he is, for Jesus did move away, a multitude being in the place. After these things, Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said to him, 'Lo, thou hast become whole; sin no more, lest something worse may happen to thee.' The man went away, and told the Jews that it is Jesus who made him whole, and because of this were the Jews persecuting Jesus, and seeking to kill him, because these things he was doing on a sabbath. And Jesus answered them, 'My Father till now doth work, and I work;' because of this, then, were the Jews seeking the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the sabbath, but he also called God his own Father, making himself equal to God. Jesus therefore responded and said to them, 'Verily, verily, I say to you, The Son is not able to do anything of himself, if he may not see the Father doing anything; for whatever things He may do, these also the Son in like manner doth; for the Father doth love the Son, and doth shew to him all things that He himself doth; and greater works than these He will shew him, that ye may wonder.
it is having been written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God; every one therefore who heard from the Father, and learned, cometh to me;
I am the living bread that came down out of the heaven; if any one may eat of this bread he shall live -- to the age; and the bread also that I will give is my flesh, that I will give for the life of the world.'
Art thou greater than our father Abraham, who died? and the prophets died; whom dost thou make thyself?'
Of the Pharisees, therefore, certain said, 'This man is not from God, because the sabbath he doth not keep;' others said, 'How is a man -- a sinful one -- able to do such signs?' and there was a division among them.
They called, therefore, a second time the man who was blind, and they said to him, 'Give glory to God, we have known that this man is a sinner;'
Jesus answered them, 'Is it not having been written in your law: I said, ye are gods?
and a certain one of them, Caiaphas, being chief priest of that year, said to them, 'Ye have not known anything,
verily, verily, I say to you, if the grain of the wheat, having fallen to the earth, may not die, itself remaineth alone; and if it may die, it doth bear much fruit;
the multitude answered him, 'We heard out of the law that the Christ doth remain -- to the age; and how dost thou say, That it behoveth the Son of Man to be lifted up? who is this -- the Son of Man?'
but -- that the word may be fulfilled that was written in their law -- They hated me without a cause.
the Jews answered him, 'We have a law, and according to our law he ought to die, for he made himself Son of God.'
'Let it therefore be known to you, men, brethren, that through this one to you is the forgiveness of sins declared,
What, then, shall we say Abraham our father, to have found, according to flesh? for if Abraham by works was declared righteous, he hath to boast -- but not before God; read more. for what doth the writing say? 'And Abraham did believe God, and it was reckoned to him -- to righteousness;' and to him who is working, the reward is not reckoned of grace, but of debt; and to him who is not working, and is believing upon Him who is declaring righteous the impious, his faith is reckoned -- to righteousness:
And law came in, that the offence might abound, and where the sin did abound, the grace did overabound,
What, then, shall we say? the law is sin? let it not be! but the sin I did not know except through law, for also the covetousness I had not known if the law had not said: Thou shalt not covet;' and the sin having received an opportunity, through the command, did work in me all covetousness -- for apart from law sin is dead. read more. And I was alive apart from law once, and the command having come, the sin revived, and I died; and the command that is for life, this was found by me for death; for the sin, having received an opportunity, through the command, did deceive me, and through it did slay me; so that the law, indeed, is holy, and the command holy, and righteous, and good.
so that the law, indeed, is holy, and the command holy, and righteous, and good. That which is good then, to me hath it become death? let it not be! but the sin, that it might appear sin, through the good, working death to me, that the sin might become exceeding sinful through the command,
That which is good then, to me hath it become death? let it not be! but the sin, that it might appear sin, through the good, working death to me, that the sin might become exceeding sinful through the command, for we have known that the law is spiritual, and I am fleshly, sold by the sin; read more. for that which I work, I do not acknowledge; for not what I will, this I practise, but what I hate, this I do. And if what I do not will, this I do, I consent to the law that it is good, and now it is no longer I that work it, but the sin dwelling in me, for I have known that there doth not dwell in me, that is, in my flesh, good: for to will is present with me, and to work that which is right I do not find, for the good that I will, I do not; but the evil that I do not will, this I practise. And if what I do not will, this I do, it is no longer I that work it, but the sin that is dwelling in me. I find, then, the law, that when I desire to do what is right, with me the evil is present, for I delight in the law of God according to the inward man, and I behold another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of the sin that is in my members. A wretched man I am! who shall deliver me out of the body of this death?
for the law of the Spirit of the life in Christ Jesus did set me free from the law of the sin and of the death; for what the law was not able to do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, His own Son having sent in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, did condemn the sin in the flesh,
and Israel, pursuing a law of righteousness, at a law of righteousness did not arrive;
for not knowing the righteousness of God, and their own righteousness seeking to establish, to the righteousness of God they did not submit.
and to the married I announce -- not I, but the Lord -- let not a wife separate from a husband:
but did renounce for ourselves the hidden things of shame, not walking in craftiness, nor deceitfully using the word of God, but by the manifestation of the truth recommending ourselves unto every conscience of men, before God;
for I through law, did die, that to God I may live;
the law, then, is against the promises of God? -- let it not be! for if a law was given that was able to make alive, truly by law there would have been the righteousness,
so that the law became our child-conductor -- to Christ, that by faith we may be declared righteous,
And I say, so long time as the heir is a babe, he differeth nothing from a servant -- being lord of all, but is under tutors and stewards till the time appointed of the father, read more. so also we, when we were babes, under the elements of the world were in servitude, and when the fulness of time did come, God sent forth His Son, come of a woman, come under law,
and when the fulness of time did come, God sent forth His Son, come of a woman, come under law, that those under law he may redeem, that the adoption of sons we may receive;
of one another the burdens bear ye, and so fill up the law of the Christ,
not having my righteousness, which is of law, but that which is through faith of Christ -- the righteousness that is of God by the faith,
not having my righteousness, which is of law, but that which is through faith of Christ -- the righteousness that is of God by the faith,
let no one beguile you of your prize, delighting in humble-mindedness and in worship of the messengers, intruding into the things he hath not seen, being vainly puffed up by the mind of his flesh,
and Moses indeed was stedfast in all his house, as an attendant, for a testimony of those things that were to be spoken,
which is a simile in regard to the present time, in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered, which are not able, in regard to conscience, to make perfect him who is serving,