Reference: Romans, The Epistle To The
AUTHENTICITY, GENUINENESS. Peter (2Pe 3:15-16) quotes Ro 2:4, calling it "Scripture." The epistles of Clement (Cor. 35) and Polycarp (ad Philippians 6) quote respectively Ro 1:29-32 and Ro 14:10-12. Irenaeus (iv. 27, section 2) quotes it as Paul's (Ro 4:10-11). Melito's "Hearing of Faith" is entitled from Romans 10 or Ga 3:2-3. The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. Haer. 99; Ro 1:20-26); Basilides (238, Ro 8:19-22; 5:13-14); Valentinus (195, Ro 8:11); the Valentinians Heracleon and Ptolemaeus; Tatian (Orat. 4, Ro 1:20), and Marcion's canon. The epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eusebius, H. E. v. 1; Ro 8:18); Athenagoras (13, Ro 12:1,21; 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol. 79, Ro 2:6,29; 13:7-8). Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it.
DATE AND PLACE OF WRITING. Paul wrote while at Corinth, for he commends to the Romans Phoebe, deaconess of Cenchreae, the port of Corinth (Ro 16:1-2). He was lodging at Gaius' house (Ro 16:23), a chief member of the Corinthian church (1Co 1:14). Erastus, "treasurer" ("chamberlain", KJV), belonged to Corinth (2Ti 4:20; Ac 19:22). The time was during his visit in the winter and spring following his long stay at Ephesus (Ro 16:27); for he was just about to carry the contributions of Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem (Ro 15:25-27; compare Ac 20:22), just after his stay at Corinth at this time (Ac 24:17; 1Co 16:4; 2Co 8:1-2; 9:1, etc.). His design of visiting Rome after Jerusalem (Ro 15:23-25) at this particular time appears incidentally from Ac 19:21. Thus, Paul wrote it in his third missionary journey, at the second of the two visas to Corinth recorded in Acts. He remained then three months in Greece.
He was on the point of sailing to Jerusalem when obliged to alter his purpose; the sea therefore was by this time navigable. It was not late in the spring, for, after passing through Macedon and visiting the coast of Asia Minor, he still expected to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Ac 20:16). He must therefore have written the epistle to the Romans early in spring, A.D. 58. Thus, it is logically connected with the epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians. He wrote 1 Corinthians before leaving Ephesus; 2 Corinthians on his way to Corinth; and Galatians at Corinth, where also he wrote Romans. Hence, the resemblance of these two epistles in style and substance. The epistle to the Galatians and the two almost contemporaneous epistles to the Corinthians are the most intense in feeling and varied in expression of Paul's epistles.
OCCASION. Intending long to visit Rome and Spain (Ro 1:9-13; 15:22-29), he was for the present unable, being bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians. But, as Phoebe a deaconess of the neighbouring Cenchreae was starting for Rome (Ro 16:1-2), he sends meantime this epistle by her. Tertius wrote it at his dictation (Ro 16:22), the apostle with his own hand, as in other epistles, probably adding the benediction and abrupt doxology at the close. Had Peter or any other apostle founded the church at Rome, some allusion to him would have occurred in this epistle or in Paul's epistles written at Rome. Moreover Paul's rule was not to build on another's foundation (Ro 15:20). Also in dividing the field of labour between himself and Peter (Ga 2:7-9), as apostle of the Gentiles he claims the Romans as his share (Ro 1:13) and hopes to confer some "spiritual gift" (charism) on them to establish them; implying that heretofore no apostle had been with them to do so (Ro 1:11; compare Ac 8:14-17).
The date of the introduction of Christianity at Rome must have been very early. Andronicus and Junia were "in Christ" even before Paul. Probably of the Roman strangers or pilgrim sojourners at Jerusalem (Ac 2:10) who heard Peter's sermon at Pentecost, some were among the converts, and brought back the gospel to the metropolis. (See RUFUS.) In this sense Peter founded the church at Rome, though having never yet visited it. The constant contact between Judaea and Rome through commerce, the passing of soldiers back and forward from Caesarea, and the repairing of Jewish settlers at Rome to Jerusalem for the three great feasts, ensured an early entrance of the gospel into Rome. Hence too at first the church there had that tinge of Judaism which this epistle corrects. Its members were in part Jews originally, in part Gentiles (compare as to the Jewish element Romans 2; Romans 3; Romans 7; Romans 9; Ro 11:13). A considerable number saluted in Romans 16 were Jew-Christians: Mary, Aquila, Priscilla, Andronicus and Junia, Paul's kinsmen, Herodion, Apelles, Aristobulus (of the Herodian family).
The Jews at Rome were so numerous that Augustus assigned them a separate quarter beyond the Tiber, and permitted them freely to exercise their religion (Philo, Leg. ad Caium, 568). That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Ro 1:5,13; 9:3-4; 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus manuscripts read for "Israel"), Ro 11:23,25,30. But the Gentiles of this church were not Latin, but Greek. The literature of the early Roman church was written in Greek; the names of its bishops are almost all Greek. The early Latin versions of the New Testament were made for the provinces, especially Africa, nor Rome. The names in the salutations (Romans 16) are generally Greek; and the Latin names, Aquila, Priscilla, Junia, Rufus, were Jews. Julia (of the imperial household), Amplias, and Urbanus, are the few exceptions.
The Greeks were the most enterprising and intelligent of the middle and lower classes at Rome. Juvenal alludes satirically to their numbers and versatility (iii. 60-80; vi. 184); their intellectual restlessness made them sit loosely to traditional superstitions, and to be more open than others to inquire into the claims of Christianity. Many of the names (Romans 16) are found in the lists of freedmen and slaves of the early Roman emperors, "they of Caesar's household" (Php 4:22). (See PALACE.) From the lower and middle classes, petty tradesmen, merchants, and army officers, the gospel gradually worked upward; still "not many wise ... mighty ... noble were called" (1Co 1:26). The legend of Peter and Paul presiding together over the church at Rome probably represents the combination of Jews and Gentiles in it. The joint episcopate of Linus and Cletus subsequently may be explained by supposing one ruled over the Jewish, the other over the Gentile congregation; this gives point to the general argument of Romans 1-3 and Ro 10:12, that there is no respect of nationality with God. Accordingly, the epistle has the character of a general treatise.
The metropolitan church was the fittest one to whom to address such a general exposition of doctrine, at the same time the injunction of obedience to temporal rulers was appropriate at the head quarters of the imperial government (Ro 13:1). The epistles to Corinthians and Galatians, immediately preceding chronologically, are full of personal references. The epistle to the Romans summarizes what he had just written; namely, epistle to Corinthians representing the attitude of the gospel to the Gentile world, the epistle to Galatians its relation to Judaism. What was in these two epistles immediately drawn out by special Judaizing errors of the Galatians, and Gentile licence of the Corinthians, is in Romans methodically combined together add arranged for general application.
The doctrine of justification by faith only on the one hand is stated (Romans 1-5) as in Galatians; on the other antinomianism is condemned (Romans 6); and the avoidance of giving offence as to meats (Romans 14) answers to 1Co 6:12, etc., 1Co 8:1, etc. Alexandrinus manuscript transposes the doxology Ro 16:25-27 (which Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts keep as KJV) to the close of Romans 14. Probably the epistle was circulated in two forms, both with and without the two last chapters. The form without them removed the personal allusions which manuscript G still more divested it
And Phrygia, and Pamphylia, Egypt, and parts of Lybia that near Cyrene, and Romans arriving as strangers, and Jews, and strangers,
And the sent in Jerusalem having heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent them Peter and John: Who, having gone down, prayed for them, that they receive the Holy Spirit read more. (For not yet was it fallen upon any of them: only they were immersed into the name of the Lord Jesus.) Then put they hands upon them, and they received the Holy Spirit.
And when these were completed, Paul proposed in spirit, having passed through Macedonia and Achaia to go to Jerusalem, saying, That after have been there, I must also see Rome. And having sent into Macedonia two of them serving him, Timothy, and Erastus, he stopped a season in Asia.
For Paul determined to sail to Ephesus, as it might not be to him to spend the time in Asia: for he hastened, if it were possible to him, to be in Jerusalem the day of Pentecost.
And now, behold, I, bound in the spirit, am going to Jerusalem, not knowing the things going to happen to me in it;
And after many years I was present, going to do alms to my nation, and offerings.
Paul, servant of Jesus Christ, called sent, separated to the good news of God, (Which he before promised by his prophets in the holy writings,) read more. Concerning his Son born of the seed of David according to the flesh. Determined the Son of God in power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the rising up of the dead of Jesus Christ our Lord: By whom we received grace and sending forth, to the obedience of faith in all nations for his name:
By whom we received grace and sending forth, to the obedience of faith in all nations for his name: In whom are ye also, the called of Jesus Christ: read more. To all being in Rome, beloved of God, called holy: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
To all being in Rome, beloved of God, called holy: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. First, I return thanks to my God by Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is announced in the whole world. read more. For my witness is God, whom I serve in my spirit in the good news of his Son, so that continually I make mention of you, always supplicating in my prayers;
For my witness is God, whom I serve in my spirit in the good news of his Son, so that continually I make mention of you, always supplicating in my prayers; If in any way I shall be prospered on my way in the will of God to come to you.
If in any way I shall be prospered on my way in the will of God to come to you. For I long to see you, That I might impart to you some spiritual grace, in order for you to be firm;
For I long to see you, That I might impart to you some spiritual grace, in order for you to be firm;
For I long to see you, That I might impart to you some spiritual grace, in order for you to be firm; And this is, to be comforted together in you by the faith in one another both of you and of me.
And this is, to be comforted together in you by the faith in one another both of you and of me. And I would not ye should be ignorant, brethren, that many times I proposed to come to you, (and I was hindered till this time,) that I might have some fruit also in you, and in the rest of the nations.
And I would not ye should be ignorant, brethren, that many times I proposed to come to you, (and I was hindered till this time,) that I might have some fruit also in you, and in the rest of the nations.
And I would not ye should be ignorant, brethren, that many times I proposed to come to you, (and I was hindered till this time,) that I might have some fruit also in you, and in the rest of the nations.
And I would not ye should be ignorant, brethren, that many times I proposed to come to you, (and I was hindered till this time,) that I might have some fruit also in you, and in the rest of the nations. Both to Greeks, and foreigners; both to wise and unwise, I am debtor. read more. So that for my part being zealous, also to you that in Rome, to announce the good news.
So that for my part being zealous, also to you that in Rome, to announce the good news. For I am not ashamed of the good news of Christ: for it is the power of God to salvation to all believing; both to the Jew first, and the Greek. read more. For the justice of God in it is revealed from faith to faith: as has been written, And the just shall live by faith.
For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world, being understood by things made, are inspected, truly both his eternal power and divinity; so that they are inexcusable:
For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world, being understood by things made, are inspected, truly both his eternal power and divinity; so that they are inexcusable: Wherefore having known God, not as God did they honour or return thanks; but were rendered vain in their conversations, and their heart without understanding was darkened. read more. Declaring themselves to be wise, they were fools, And they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of flying things, and of creeping things, and of quadrupeds. Wherefore God delivered them in the eager desire of their hearts to uncleanness, to dishonour their bodies in themselves:
Wherefore God delivered them in the eager desire of their hearts to uncleanness, to dishonour their bodies in themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a falsehood, and reverenced and served the creation above him creating, who is praised forever. Amen. read more. Therefore God delivered them to the suffering of ignominy: for also their females changed the natural use into that against generation:
Having been filled with all injustice, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, badness; full of envy, slaughter, strife, deceit, malignity, Whisperers, slanderers, odious to God, abusers of power, proud, tumultuous, inventors of injuries, disobedient to parents, read more. Destitute of understanding, unsteady, devoid of natural affection, implacable, merciless: Who knowing the justice of God, that they doing such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but also approve those doing.
Or the abundance of his goodness and forbearance and long suffering dos thou despise; not knowing that the goodness of God brings thee to repentance?
Who will give back to each according to his works:
But he in concealment, a Jew; and circumcision of the heart, in spirit, not in letter; whose approbation not of man, but of God.
What then the superiority of the Jew or what the advantage of circumcision? Much according to every manner: for truly first were they trusted with the oracles of God. read more. For what if some disbelieved? their unbelief will not leave inactive the faith of God. It may not be: and let God be true, and every man a liar; as has been written, That thou mightest be justified in thy words, and mightest conquer in thy being judged. And if our injustice shall recommend the justice of God, what shall we say God not unjust bringing in anger? (I speak as man) It may not be: for how shall God judge the world For if the truth of God in my lying abounded to his glory; why yet am I judged as sinful? And not, (as we are defamed, and some have declared us to say,) That we should do evil things, that good things might come: whose judgment is just. What advantage therefore have we? Not in any way: for we before accused both Jews and Greeks, all to be under sin. As has been written, That there is no just one, not one: There is none understanding, there is none seeking God. All have bent aside, together have they become unprofitable: there is none doing good, there is not even one. Their throat an opened tomb; with their tongues have they used deceit; the poison of asps under their lips: Whose mouth is full of cursing and harshness: Their feet active to pour out blood: Bruising and grievous toil in their ways: And the way of peace they knew not: The fear of God is not before their eyes. And we know that whatever says the law, it speaks to them in the law: that every mouth be shut, and all the world be culpable to God. Therefore from the works of the law shall no flesh be justified before him: for by the law the knowledge of sin. But now without law the justice of God has been made apparent, being testified by the law and by the prophets; And the justice of God by faith of Jesus Christ to all and upon all believing: for there is no distinction: For all have sinned, and failed of the glory of God; Being justified as a gift by his grace by the redemption which is in Christ Jesus: Whom God had set before a propitiatory by faith in his blood, for a manifestation of his justice by passing over of sins before existing, in the sufferance of God; For the manifestation of his justice now in time: for him to be just, and justifying him of the faith of Jesus. Where then boasting? It was excluded. By what law? of works? No: but by the law of faith. We reckon then man to be justified by faith without the works of the law. Or only the God of the Jews? and not also of the nations? Yes, also of the nations: Since one God, who will justify circumcision of faith, and uncircumcision by faith. Therefore shall we leave the law inactive by faith It may not be: but we should establish the law.
How then was it reckoned? to him being in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the justice of the faith which in uncircumcision: for him to be father of all believing through uncircumcision; for justice also to be reckoned to them:
Justified therefore of faith we have peace with God by our Lord Jesus Christ: By whom also we have had access by faith into this grace in which we have stood, and we boast upon hope of the glory of God. read more. And not only, but also we boast in affliction: knowing that affliction works perseverance; And perseverance, proof; and proof, hope. And hope shames not; for the love of God has been poured in our hearts by the Holy Spirit given us. For yet Christ, we being weak, Recording to the time died for the impious. For scarcely for the just will any one die: yet for the good perhaps some also would venture to die. And God recommends his own love to us, that we yet being sinful, Christ died for us. Much more then, justified now in his blood, we shall be saved by him from wrath. For if, being enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, reconciled, we shall be saved in his life. And not only, but also boasting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received reconciliation. Therefore, as by one man sin came into the world, and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men, in that all have sinned: (For until the law sin was in the world: and sin is not charged, being no law.
(For until the law sin was in the world: and sin is not charged, being no law. But death reigned from Adam to Moses, and upon them not having sinned upon the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is the type of him about to be.
But death reigned from Adam to Moses, and upon them not having sinned upon the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is the type of him about to be. But not as the fall, so also the favor. For if for the fall of one many died, much more the grace of God, and the gift in grace, of one man, Jesus Christ, has abounded to many. read more. And not as by one having sinned, the gift: for truly the judgment of one to condemnation, but the favor of many falls to justification. For if by the fall of one, death reigned by one; much more they receiving the abundance of grace and the gift of justice in life shall reign by one, Jesus Christ.) Therefore as by the fall of one for all men to condemnation; so also by the justification of one for all men to justification of life. For as by one man's disobedience many were constituted sinful, so also by the obedience of one shall many be constituted just. And the law entered, that the fall might abound. And where sin abounded, grace superabounded: That as sin reigned in death, so grace might reign by justice to life eternal, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
And if the Spirit of him having raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he having raised up Christ from the dead will make alive also your mortal bodies by his Spirit dwelling in you.
For I reckon that the sufferings of the time now not worthy of the glory about to be revealed in us. For the anxious expectation of the creation awaits the revelation of the sons of God. read more. For the creation was subject to vanity, not voluntarily, but by him having subjected in hope, That also the creation itself be freed from servitude of corruption to the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that all creation groans together and travails together until now.
For I myself was praying to be anathema from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh: Who are Israelites; whose the adoption as a son, and the glory, and covenants, and legislation, and divine worship, and solemn promises;
Brethren, truly my heart's delight and prayer to God for Israel is for salvation.
For no distinction is of the Jew and also of the Greek: for the same Lord of all being rich to all calling upon him.
(For I speak to you the nations, inasmuch as truly I am the sent of the nations, I highly value my service:
And they also, if they continue not in unbelief, shall be grafted in:for God is able to graft them in again.
For I will not ye should not know, brethren, this mystery, lest ye be wise with yourselves; for hardness from part has been to Israel, till the filling up of the nations come in.
For as also ye, when ye were disobedient to God, but now ye have been commiserated by the unbelief of these:
I Beseech you therefore, brethren, by the compassions of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, pleasing to God, your reasonable service.
Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.
Let every soul be placed under the protecting powers. For there is no power except from God: and the powers being, were ordered by God.
Therefore restore debts to all; to whom tribute, tribute; to whom recompense, recompense; to whom fear, fear; to whom honour, honour. Owe ye nothing to none, except to love one another: for he loving another has completed the law.
And why judgest thou thy brother? or why also despisest thou thy brother? for we shall all stand at the judgment seat of Christ. For it has been written, I live, says the Lord, for to me shall every knee bend, and every tongue acknowledge to God. read more. So therefore shall each of us give word for himself to God.
And I am persuaded my brethren, and I myself for you, that ye yourselves also are full of goodness, tilled with all knowledge, being able also to remind one another. And I wrote to you more boldly, brethren, from part as reminding you, by the grace given me by God, read more. For me to be the, workman of Jesus Christ to the nations, offering in sacrifice the good news of God, that the bringing forward of the nations be acceptable, consecrated in the Holy Spirit. I have therefore boasting in Christ Jesus the things toward God. For I shall dare to speak nothing that Christ has not brought about by me, for the obedience of the nations, by word and by work, By power of signs and wonders, by power of the Spirit of God, so that I from Jerusalem, and round about even to Illyricum, have completed the good news of Christ. And so seeking the honour to announce the good news, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon a strange foundation:
And so seeking the honour to announce the good news, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon a strange foundation: But as has been written, to whom it was not announced of him, they shall see: and they who have not heard shall understand. read more. Wherefore also I was hindered in many things from coming to you.
Wherefore also I was hindered in many things from coming to you. And now having no more place in these climes, and having an anxious desire to come to you from many years.
And now having no more place in these climes, and having an anxious desire to come to you from many years.
And now having no more place in these climes, and having an anxious desire to come to you from many years. Whenever I go into Spain, I will come to you, for I hope passing through to see you: and by you to be sent forward there, if first from part I might be filled with you.
Whenever I go into Spain, I will come to you, for I hope passing through to see you: and by you to be sent forward there, if first from part I might be filled with you.
Whenever I go into Spain, I will come to you, for I hope passing through to see you: and by you to be sent forward there, if first from part I might be filled with you. And now I go to Jerusalem serving the holy ones.
And now I go to Jerusalem serving the holy ones.
And now I go to Jerusalem serving the holy ones.
And now I go to Jerusalem serving the holy ones. For Macedonia and Achaia were contented a certain mutual participation be made for the poor of the holy ones in Jerusalem.
For Macedonia and Achaia were contented a certain mutual participation be made for the poor of the holy ones in Jerusalem.
For Macedonia and Achaia were contented a certain mutual participation be made for the poor of the holy ones in Jerusalem. For they were contented; and they are their debtors. For if the nations have participated in their spiritual things, they ought also to serve them in things pertaining to the flesh.
For they were contented; and they are their debtors. For if the nations have participated in their spiritual things, they ought also to serve them in things pertaining to the flesh.
For they were contented; and they are their debtors. For if the nations have participated in their spiritual things, they ought also to serve them in things pertaining to the flesh. Therefore having completed this, and sealed to them this fruit, I will come away by you to Spain.
Therefore having completed this, and sealed to them this fruit, I will come away by you to Spain. And I know that, coming to you, I shall come in the completion of the praise of the good news of Christ.
And I know that, coming to you, I shall come in the completion of the praise of the good news of Christ. And I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by love of the Spirit, to fight together with me in prayers for me to God; read more. That I might be saved from the unbelieving in Judea; and that my service for Jerusalem be acceptable to the holy ones; That in joy I might come to you by the will of God, and rest with you. And the God of peace with you all. Amen.
And I place with you Phebe our sister, being servant of the church in Cenchrea:
And I place with you Phebe our sister, being servant of the church in Cenchrea: That ye receive her in the Lord, worthy of the holy ones, and encourage her in whatever thing she have need of you: for she also has been the rule of many, and of myself.
That ye receive her in the Lord, worthy of the holy ones, and encourage her in whatever thing she have need of you: for she also has been the rule of many, and of myself.
I Tertius embrace you, having written the epistle in the Lord. Gains my guest, and of the whole church, embraces you. Erastus steward of the city embraces you, and Quartus the brother.
And to him being able to support you according to my good news, and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery kept silent from eternal times, And now made manifest, also by the prophetic writings according to the command of the eternal God, for the obedience of faith made known to all nations: read more. To the only wise God, by Jesus Christ, to whom glory forever. Amen.
To the only wise God, by Jesus Christ, to whom glory forever. Amen.
I thank God that I immersed none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;
For ye see your calling, brethren, that not many wise according to the flesh, not many powerful, not, many well born:
All things are lawful to me, but all are not profitable: all are lawful to me, but I will not be exercised by power under any.
And concerning sacrifice to idols, we know, (for we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, and love builds the house.
But on the contrary, having seen that I have been entrusted with the good news of uncircumcision, as Peter of circumcision; (For be having been energetic in Peter for the mission of circumcision, was energetic also in me for the nations:) read more. And having known the grace given to me, James, and Cephas, and John, seeming to be pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hands of communion; that we for the nations, and they for the circumcision.
This only wish I to learn from you, Received ye the Spirit from the works of the law, or from the hearing of faith?. Are ye so unwise? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now completed in the flesh?
Paul, sent of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the holy ones being in Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:
All the holy greet you, and chiefly they from Caesar's house.
Erastus remained in Corinth: and Trophimus I left in Miletum sick.
And the longsuffering of our Lord deem ye salvation; as also our dearly beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, wrote to you; As also in all the epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things difficult to understand, which the unlearned and unstable pervert, as also the rest of the writings, to their own perdition.