The present article will be confined to Biblical Ethics. As there is no systematic presentation of the subject, all that can be done is to gather from the Jewish and Christian writings the moral conceptions that were formed by historians, prophets, poets, apostles. The old history culminates in the story of the perfect One, the Lord Jesus Christ, from whom there issued a life of higher order and ampler range.
I. OT Ethics.
Then was Jesus led up by the Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted by the devil: there having fasted forty days and forty nights, he at length grew hungry. read more. whereupon the tempter came to him, and said, "If thou be the Son of God, command these stones to become bread." but Jesus answered him, It is written, "Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every thing that God shall prescribe." then the devil took Jesus with him to Jerusalem, and having set him on the wing of the temple, he said to him, if you are the Son of God, throw your self down: for it is written, "he will charge his angels to take care of you, and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest you bruise your foot against a stone." Jesus replied, it is likewise written, "Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God." Again, the devil accompanyed him up a very high mountain, and representing to him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them: all these things, said he, will I give you, if you will prostrate your self and worship me. Then said Jesus to him, get thee hence Satan: for it it written, "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve ." whereupon the devil left him, and immediately angels came and ministred unto him.
Jesus, to avoid this crowd of people, went to a mountain: and when he was set down, his disciples came to him.
Jesus, to avoid this crowd of people, went to a mountain: and when he was set down, his disciples came to him. and he addressed himself to them in these instructions.
and he addressed himself to them in these instructions. Blessed are they, that are of an humble spirit, for of such is the kingdom of the Messias.
Blessed are they, that are of an humble spirit, for of such is the kingdom of the Messias. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be satisfied.
Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be satisfied. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the pacific: for they shall be the children of God.
Blessed are the pacific: for they shall be the children of God. Blessed are they who are persecuted upon the account of righteousness: for their's is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are they who are persecuted upon the account of righteousness: for their's is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are they who are persecuted upon the account of righteousness: for their's is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed shall you be when men shall revile and persecute you, and falsely charge you with all manner of evil for your attachment to me.
Blessed shall you be when men shall revile and persecute you, and falsely charge you with all manner of evil for your attachment to me. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great will be your reward in heaven: for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great will be your reward in heaven: for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you. Ye are the salt of the earth; but if the salt become insipid, how shall it recover its savour? it is no longer fit for any thing, but to be cast out and trod under foot. read more. ye are the light of the world. a city that is situated on an hill, cannot be hid; and when men light a lamp, they do not put it under a bushel: but on the stand, to give light to all the family. even so let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your father who is in heaven. Don't think that I am come to abolish the law or the prophets: I am not come to abolish, but to complete them.
Ye have heard that it has been said to the antients, "Thou shalt not kill: and whosoever shall kill, shall be punish'd by the tribunal."
Ye have heard that it has been said to the antients, "Thou shalt not kill: and whosoever shall kill, shall be punish'd by the tribunal." but I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be punish'd by the tribunal: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be punish'd by the Sanhedrim: but whosoever shall say, thou fool, shall be punish'd by the fire of Gehenna. read more. When therefore you bring your gift to the altar, and there remember that your brother has reason to be displeas'd with you: leave your gift before the altar, go, and first of all reconcile yourself to your brother; then come to offer your gift.
Ye have heard that it was said, "Thou shalt not commit adultery," but I tell you, that whosoever looks on a woman with impure desires is already guilty of approving the fact.
Ye have heard that it hath been said, "An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." but I say unto you, don't return evil for evil; on the contrary, if any one strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other likewise.
Take care not to perform any religious act in order to be observed by men: otherwise you will have no reward from your father who is in heaven.
that your alms may be secret: and your father who sees your secret actions, shall reward you.
but you, when you pray, enter into your closet, and when you have shut the door, pray to your father who is with you in your retirement, and your father who observeth the actions of your retirement shall reward you.
for if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly father will also forgive you. but if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your father forgive your trespasses.
that your fasting may not be observed by men, but by your father, who is with you in your retirement, and your father who observes what you do in private, shall give you a reward.
therefore, whoever heareth these instructions of mine, and puts them in practice, I will compare him to the prudent man, who built his house upon a rock: the rain descended, the floods came, the winds blew, and beat upon that house: but it fell not, for it was founded upon a rock. read more. but every one that heareth these instructions of mine, and practiseth them not, shall be compared to a fool who built his house upon the sand: the rain descends, the flood rushes on, the winds blow, and beat upon the house: down it falls, and wide are its ruins.
for is it not as easy to say, thy sins are forgiven? as to say, arise, and walk? only it was fit you should know that the son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins: arise, then, said he, to the paralytic, take up thy bed, and march home.
he that loveth father or mother more than me, is unworthy of me: he that loveth son or daughter more than me, is unworthy of me. and he that does not take his cross, and so follow after me, is unworthy of me. read more. he that would preserve his life, shall lose it: and he that exposeth his life for my sake, shall save it.
I declare unto you, among the whole race of prophets, there never appear'd a greater than John the Baptist: (notwithstanding, he that is least in the kingdom of the
O degenerate race, how can ye, wicked as ye are, utter any thing that is good? for "'tis the overflowing of the heart that the mouth dischargeth." a good man out of the good treasure produces good things: and an evil man, out of the evil treasure, produces evil things.
for I declare unto you, that many prophets and just men have desired to see what ye see, and have not seen it: and to hear what ye hear, and have not heard it.
so that this saying of the prophet was fulfilled, "I will talk in parables, I will utter what has been kept secret from the foundation of the world."
they reply'd, yes, Lord. then said he to them, thus every teacher who is instructed in the doctrine of the gospel, is like the master of a family, who taketh out of his treasure things new and old.
In this respect the gospel-kingdom may be represented by that of a temporal prince, who had a mind to call his servants to account. when he had begun to reckon, one was brought to him indebted the sum of ten thousand talents. read more. but being insolvent, his lord gave orders that he, with his wife, and children, and all that he had, should be sold for payment. the servant therefore fell prostrate before him, and cry'd out, Lord, allow me but time and I will pay the whole. upon which the lord of that vassal, touch'd with compassion, gave him his liberty, and discharged him of the debt. but this very servant presently after met with one of his fellow-servants, who owed him an hundred pence: and violently seizing him, said, pay me the debt. and his fellow-servant fell at his feet, and embraced him, saying, allow me time, and I will pay thee all. which he would not allow: but immediately threw him into prison, till he should pay the debt. his fellow-servants upon seeing this were very much concern'd, and went to acquaint their master with what had pass'd. then his lord order'd him to be call'd, and said to him, O thou wicked slave, I forgave thee all thy debt, upon your request: should not you then have had the like compassion for thy fellow servant as I had for thee? so that his lord in great displeasure delivered him to the jayler till he should pay the whole debt. in the same manner will my heavenly father likewise treat you, if ye do not sincerely forgive every one the trespasses of his brother.
their phylacterys are broader, and the fringes of their garments are larger than those of others:
wo unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites; for ye are like whited sepulchres, which to outward appearance are fine. but within are full of dead mens bones, and all sort of filth.
then will he say to those on the left, depart from me ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. for I was prest with hunger, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: read more. I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. then will they answer, Lord, when did we see thee in hunger, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? to this he will reply, I declare unto you, your not doing this for one of the least of these, is the same thing as not doing it for me.
teaching them to observe every thing which I have enjoin'd you: and be assured I shall be always with you to the end of the world.
when the Scribes and Pharisees saw him eating with such a crew, they ask'd his disciples, what's the meaning that he is so familiar with people of such a wretched character? Jesus hearing this, said to them, they that are in health, have no need of a physician, but they that are sick: I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners.
indeed no man ever sews a piece of new cloth on an old garment: because the new piece that is patch'd on, draws the old, and rends it still worse. so no man pours new wine into old skins, for that would burst them, and then both would be lost: but new wine must be put into new skins.
when observing that some of his disciples were eating with profane hands, that is, without having wash'd them, they found fault. for the Pharisees, and the Jews in general, in pursuance of their antient traditions, never eat till they have wash'd their hands up to their elbows. read more. nay, when they have been at any publick place, they never eat till they have washed. they observe besides several traditions, such as the washing of cups, pots, brass vessels, and beds. the Pharisees, and Scribes therefore ask'd Jesus, why don't your disciples observe the tradition of the antients? why do they take their meals without washing their hands? Jesus answered, to such hypocrites as you may well be applied those words of the prophet Esaias, "this people honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the institutions of men." for laying aside what is of divine appointment, you stick to their human traditions, about the washing of pots, and cups, and many other the like practices.
and he said, are you likewise so void of understanding? don't you perceive that what passes from without into a man cannot defile him? because that does not enter into his heart, but into the belly, whence it is discharg'd, the purest part of the food being left for nutrition. read more. but, said he, that which proceeds from a man, is what defiles him: for from within, from the heart of man proceed wicked designs, adulteries, fornications, murders; thefts,
for from within, from the heart of man proceed wicked designs, adulteries, fornications, murders; thefts, avarice, malice, fraud, impudence, envy, scandal, pride, vanity.
avarice, malice, fraud, impudence, envy, scandal, pride, vanity. all these vices come from within, and are what defile the man.
then the Pharisees came and propos'd to him this insnaring question, is it lawful for a man to repudiate his wife? to which he answered, what direction did Moses give you? read more. Moses, said they, allowed a bill of divorce, and so to dismiss her. but Jesus answered them, it was out of regard to your untractable temper, that Moses gave you this permission. for in the beginning of the world God formed them male and female. "wherefore, 'tis said, a man shall leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh." consequently they are no longer two, but one person. let no man therefore separate what God has designed to be one.
when they were come, they said to him, master, we know that you are sincere, that you are not influenced by any one, for you have no regard to the person of men: but teach us the way of God according to truth. now should we pay tribute to Cesar, or no? shall we pay, or shall we not pay? but he, perceiving their hypocrisy, said to them, why do you lay snares for me? read more. let me see a penny. and when they brought it, he asked them, whose image and inscription is this? they said, Cesar's. to which Jesus reply'd, render to Cesar what belongs to Cesar, and to God what belongs to God. and they were surprized at the answer.
As soon as the sun was set, all sorts of diseased persons were brought before him by their friends, and he healed them all, by laying his hands upon them.
and the deceased sat up, and began to speak, and Jesus delivered him to his mother.
wherefore, I tell you, her sins, which are numerous, are forgiven; and that is the reason of all this love: but his love is less, to whom less is forgiven.
Then he said to another, follow me: but he replied, Lord, let me stay first, till I bury my father. Jesus said to him, let the dead bury their dead; but do you go and preach the kingdom of God.
wo unto thee Chorazin; wo unto thee Bethsaida: for if the miracles, which have been wrought among you, had been wrought in Tyre and Sidon, they would long since have lain repenting in sackcloth and ashes. therefore Tyre and Sidon shall be treated with less severity in the day of judgment, than you. read more. and thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to the sky, shall be plung'd into an abyss. he that adheres to you, adheres to me; he that rejects you, rejects me: and he that rejects me, rejecteth him that sent me.
Then a doctor of the law stood up to try him, saying, master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? to whom he answered, how does the law run in that case? what do you find? read more. he replied, 'tis thus, "thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy soul, with all thy strength, and with all thy understanding; and thy neighbour as thy self." you have answered well, replied Jesus, do this, and you shall live. but he being desirous to clear himself, said to Jesus, but what is meant by our neighbour? to which Jesus answered, a certain man, as he was going from Jerusalem to Jericho, fell among thieves, who stripp'd him, and beat him, then march'd off leaving him half dead. a certain priest happen'd to be travelling that way, who look'd upon him, and then pass'd on. a Levite too came to the same place, gave him a look, and pass'd on. but a certain Samaritan being on the road, came where he was, and when he saw him, he took compassion on him, went up to him, dress'd his wounds by applying oil and wine, then set him upon his own mule, and brought him to an inn, where he took care of him. upon his departure the next day, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the master of the house, take care of him, said he, and I will repay you all the charges you are at, upon my return. which now of the three do you think was neighbour to the man that was robb'd. he, reply'd the doctor, who took pity on him. then said Jesus to him, go then, and imitate his example.
and said, he that can't abandon his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, nay, even his own life, cannot be my disciple. and he that does not bear his cross, and tread in my steps, cannot be my disciple.
who of you that has an hundred sheep, will not, upon losing one, leave the ninety nine in the desart, to go after that which is lost, till he finds it? and when he hath found it, joyfully lay it upon his shoulders? read more. and when he comes home, call his friends and neighbours together, and say to them, rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep, that was lost? I tell you, that there shall likewise be greater joy in heaven for one sinner that repents, than for ninety nine just persons, that need no repentance.
but he said to them, you pretend to piety before men, which, however they may admire, is an abomination to God, who knows your real temper.
There was a rich man, who used to dress in purple and fine linnen, and pass his days in pomp and luxury. a certain beggar named Lazarus, was lying at his gate, and tho' cover'd with ulcers, the very dogs came and fawned upon him. read more. but he wanted to be fed with the crumbs, that fell from the rich man's table. at length the beggar died: and was conveyed by the angels to Abraham's bower. the rich man died too, and was buried. and being in the infernal regions of torments, he lift up his eyes, and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bower. and he cry'd out, saying, father Abraham, take pity on me, and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water to cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. but Abraham said, son, remember you had your enjoyments, when you were alive, and Lazarus his misfortunes: but now he has his consolation, and you your torments. besides this, there is an unalterable chasm between us and you, so that the passage from one place to the other is impracticable to those who should attempt it. upon which he said, father, I beg it of you, that you would send him to my father's family, where I have five brothers, to give them warning, lest they also come into this place of torment. but Abraham replied, they have Moses and the prophets, let them mind them. no, father Abraham, said he, they will not: but if any of the dead went to them, they will certainly repent. Abraham replied, if they disregard Moses and the prophets, they will not believe any one, though he rose from the dead.
two men went to the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, the other a Publican. the Pharisee in a standing posture pray'd thus by himself, O God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men, a robber, a cheat, an adulterer, or like that Publican. read more. I fast twice a week, and I pay the tythe of all I possess. but the Publican, who stood a good way lower, not daring to lift up even his eyes to heaven, only smote his breast, and said, O God, be merciful to me, who am a sinner. I tell you this man went home approv'd as just, and not the other. for whoever exalteth himself shall be humbled, and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
but Zaccheus address'd himself to Jesus, and said, Lord, half my estate I give to the poor; and if I have wrong'd any man, I will give him four times the value. then said Jesus, speaking of him, this day is salvation come to this family, since he is now become a true son of Abraham.
then said he to Jesus, Lord, remember me when you enter into your kingdom.
and all the people that had crowded to that sight, went home striking their breasts at the thoughts of those events.
all things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made. the Life was produc'd in him, and the Life was the Light of men.
the law indeed was delivered by Moses, but grace and truth was the dispensation of Jesus Christ.
The next day after, John was again there with two of his disciples:
Jesus answered him, I declare unto thee, except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
the cleansing of the body is only external, but the purification of the spirit is spiritual.
for God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have eternal life.
he that believeth on him, shall not be condemned: but he that believeth not, is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the only begotten son of God.
but the time is coming, nay, is very nigh, when the true worshippers shall worship the father in spirit and in truth: for they are the worshippers which he requires.
therefore I said to you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if you don't believe me to be what I am, ye shall die in your sins.
if the son therefore shall make you free, you will be free indeed.
which of you can convict me of sin? if then I say the truth, why don't you believe me?
I am the true pastor, I know my sheep, and my sheep know me,
you call me master, and lord: and you are in the right; for so I am.
a new commandment I give unto you, "that ye love one another; that you would have the same love for one another as I have had for you."
and when I am gone, and have prepar'd a place for you, I will come again, to take you with me, that where I am there ye may be also.
yet a little while, and the world shall see me no more: but ye shall see me: because I shall live again, and ye shall live also.
I am the genuine vine, and my father is the vintager. every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he takes away: as for the branch that bears fruit, he prunes it clean, to make it more fruitful. read more. you are already clean by the instructions I have given you. be attach'd to me, and I shall be so to you. as the branch cannot bear fruit of it self, except it be attach'd to the vine: so neither can you, except you continue attach'd to me. I am the vine, you are the branches: he that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for independent of me ye can do nothing. if a man abide not in me, he is cast away as withered branches that are gather'd up to be thrown into the fire, where they are burned. if ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask what ye will, and you shall obtain it. my father will be honour'd by your bearing much fruit, and you will have the honour of being my disciples. as the father has loved me, and I have loved you: so do you persevere in your love to me. your love to me will be in keeping my commandments: even as I love my father by keeping his commandments.
if I had not appear'd, and inform'd them, they would have been innocent: but now they have no excuse for their sin. he that hateth me, hateth my father also. read more. if I had not done among them such works as no other ever did, they had been innocent: but though they have seen them, yet they hate both me and my father.
they shall expel you out of the synagogues: yea, the time is coming, when it will be thought an agreeable sacrifice to God for any one to take away your lives.
and when he is come, he will convince the world of sin, of justice, of judgment:
and when he is come, he will convince the world of sin, of justice, of judgment: of sin, because they believ'd not on me;
these things I have appriz'd you of, that ye might repose your confidence in me. the world shall give you trouble: but take courage, I have overcome the world.
I have glorified thee on the earth: I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.
father, I desire that they also whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am going; that they may behold my glory which thou hast given me: for thou didst love me before the foundation of the world; yet,
full of joy, that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for the name of Jesus.
(for as yet he had not descended on any of them: they having only been baptized in the name of the Lord
after this the apostles having certified and preached the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, preaching the gospel by the way in many villages of the Samaritans. Now an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, arise, and go toward the south, by the way that leads from Jerusalem to Gaza, in the desart. read more. accordingly he departed: and met a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, and was her high-treasurer: he had been at Jerusalem, to perform the duties of a proselyte, but was now upon his return, and sat in his chariot, reading the prophet Esaias. then the spirit said unto Philip, go near, and advance to his chariot. Philip ran to him, and hearing him read the prophet Esaias, said, do you understand what you read? how can I, answer'd he, without some expositor? and he desired Philip to mount, and sit with him. the passage of the scripture which he read, was this, "he was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and like a lamb before his shearer, was dumb, so opened he not his mouth: in his humiliation he was judged, he was taken off: and who shall describe the men of his time? for the land has taken away his life." and the eunuch answered Philip, and said, pray, of whom does the prophet say this? of himself, or of some other? then Philip enter'd upon the subject, and show'd how the whole passage was applicable to Jesus. as they pursued their journey, they came to a place of water: and the eunuch said, see, here is water; what should hinder my being baptized? [and Philip said, if you believe with all your heart, you may. and he answered, I do believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God.] so he order'd the charioteer to stop: and they went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. when they were come out of the water, the spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more: and he pursued his way with joy.
as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him, and prostrated himself at his feet, but Peter rais'd him, saying, stand up; I am but a man, as well as you.
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, chosen to declare the gospel dispensation,
for it is not the Jew in outward appearance, neither is it the external mark of circumcision: but it is the Jew, who is so inwardly, and it is the circumcision of the heart, according to the spiritual, not the literal sense, which have the approbation, I do not say of men, but of God.
do we then make the law useless by our doctrine of faith? by no means; on the contrary, it is we that observe the law.
Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, who has given us access by faith to that degree of favour, we are in, by which we triumph in the hopes of divine glory.
now for a wicked man no one would willingly die; but for a benefactor some have readily offer'd to die. but herein hath God displayed his love towards us, in that Christ died for us, even while we were yet sinners.
for we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold a slave to sin.
for the christian dispensation of a spiritual life has set me free from the legal state of sin and death.
you are not in such a state, but in a spiritual one, provided the divine spirit dwell in you. now if any man have not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
for whom he before approv'd, he predispos'd to follow the example of his son, who was to conduct them all as their elder brother;
yet after all we are more than conquerors, through him that loved us. for I am fully persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, read more. neither the high, nor the low, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God by Christ Jesus our Lord.
Be every one of you subject to the ruling powers. for every ruler holds of God: the rulers in being are constituted by God. so that he who opposes the ruler, disobeys the orders of God: and will be punished too for resisting, by those very powers. read more. rulers are not a terror to virtue, but to vice. would you then live without any dread of the civil power? do what is right, and you shall have his commendation. for his administration is appointed by God for your good. but if you do wrong, you have reason to be afraid; for he bears not the sword in vain: he being the minister of God, to execute punishment upon malefactors. wherefore you ought to submit not only from an apprehension of punishment, but from a principle of conscience. for this is the reason why you also pay tribute, because under God, they are continually attending upon the publick administration. render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, reverence to whom reverence, honour to whom honour.
who art thou that judgest the domestick of another? his staying or removal depends solely upon his master: yea, he shall be fixed: for God is able to establish him.
for we preach not our selves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, professing our selves your servants for his sake.
for we must all appear before the tribunal of Christ; that every one may receive the retribution, according as his actions in the body were either good or evil.
for you are sensible of the beneficence of our Lord Jesus Christ; powerful as he was, for your sake he became poor, that you through his poverty might be made rich.
now the effects of vicious passions are manifestly these, fornication, uncleanness, brutality, idolatry, poisoning, enmities, quarrels, emulations, animosities, strife, seditions, factions, envyings, read more. drunkenness, revellings, and such like, concerning which I forewarn you now, as heretofore I have done, that they who practise such vices, shall not inherit the kingdom of God. but the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, sweetness of disposition, beneficence, faithfulness, meekness, temperance:
but the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, sweetness of disposition, beneficence, faithfulness, meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
against such there is no law.
Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, do you, who are spiritual, restore him with all gentleness, taking heed lest you yourselves be overcome by temptation. bear with one another's infirmities, and so fulfil the law of Christ.
for every man must be answerable for his own actions.
When you were in that destructive state of transgression and sin, in which you formerly liv'd, influenc'd by the customs of this world, and by the prince of the aerial powers, the spirits that now actuate the incredulous: read more. of which number we all have formerly been, leading our dissolute lives in gratifying the desires of our sensual imaginations: and were indeed obnoxious to the divine displeasure, as other. Gentiles were: then it was that God, who is rich in mercy, thro' his great love, wherewith he loved us, did raise us all, who were in that deadly state of sin, to life by Christ, for by grace ye are saved: he hath raised us up together, and made us partakers of his heavenly kingdom. that in the ages to come, he might shew the immense riches of his gracious kindness towards us, through Christ Jesus.
(which kept us at variance) by abolishing the dogmatical injunctions of the law, that having made the peace, he might incorporate the two into one new body under himself;
let him that stole, steal no more: but rather let him labour, to encrease his fortune with his own hands, that he may have wherewithal to relieve the needy: let no obscene language defile your mouth, use only such as tends to edification, that it may be beneficial to the hearers.
let married women be submissive to their husbands, out of regard to the Lord.
and you masters have a just regard to them, by softning your authority: knowing that both their and your master is in heaven, where there is no respect of persons with him.
for it is a favour bestowed upon you, that you not only believe on Christ, but suffer also for his sake,
for the same temper of mind ought to be in you as was in Christ Jesus:
Wherefore, my beloved, as you have always obey'd the gospel, not only when I was with you, but much more now while I am absent, continue the work of your own salvation, whatever persecutions you apprehend: for it is God that influences your desires and endeavours, out of his benevolence to you.
nay I think them disadvantages when put in competition with the excellency of the knowledge of Jesus Christ my Lord: for whose sake I abandon all these things, and count them as straw, that I may gain Christ, and be his true disciple, not professing that justification, which is derived from the law, but that which is from the gospel, read more. the justification which God grants to those who acknowledge Christ and the power of his resurrection, who suffer after his example, and die to sin, as he died to the world, in order to obtain the resurrection of the just. for I am not yet secure of the prize, I have not yet finish'd my course: but I press to obtain the reward, which Jesus Christ invited me to. I don't imagine, my brethren, that I am arriv'd at the goal; but this I do, unmindful of what is pass'd, I stretch towards that which is in view, I press towards the mark for the prize to which God has called me from above by Jesus Christ.
he it is that we preach, exhorting, and instructing men in every part of divine knowledge, that they may all be perfectly acquainted with the doctrine of Christ Jesus.
If then you are risen with Christ, seek the things, that are above, where Christ sits at the right hand of God. let the things above, and not such worldly matters be the object of your thoughts. read more. for you are dead to them, and Christ has secured your life with God. Christ is your life, and when he shall appear, then shall you also appear with him in glory. Mortify therefore your sensual appetites, fornication, impurity, irregular passions, wicked desires, and that licentiousness practised by idolaters. these are vices which draw down the divine vengeance upon unbelieving nations; among whom you had your conversation, when you followed their practices. but now renounce them all, as well as anger, animosity, malice: let calumny and obscene discourse be banish'd from your lips. let there be no fraud among you, since you have discarded your former habits and practices, and are become new men,
be you therefore adorn'd with a compassionate temper, with benevolence, humility, meekness, patience as becometh saints and chosen favourites of God: bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, when one has any cause of complaint against another: as the Lord forgave you, do you likewise forgive. read more. to all this add love, which is the band of perfect union: may the peace of Christ, to which you are called to be but one body, influence your hearts, to be benevolent. Let the christian doctrine be the familiar subject of your entertainment: in all wisdom instructing and exhorting one another, in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, melodiously tuning your grateful praises to God. let your discourse and your actions be all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the father by him. Dames, be submissive to your husbands, as becomes christians.
as for you, masters, give to your servants what is just and suitable: considering that you also have a master in heaven.
Jesus, who is called Justus, salutes you: these are the only Jews who by assisting me in preaching the gospel,
As for you, teach nothing but what is agreeable to sound doctrine: advise the aged to be prudent, grave, temperate, sound in faith,
teaching us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and to practise temperance, justice and piety in this present world;
teaching us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and to practise temperance, justice and piety in this present world; in expectation of that desirable happiness, the glorious appearance of the supreme God, and of our saviour Jesus Christ, read more. who gave himself for us, to redeem us from all iniquity, and qualify us to be his peculiar people, passionately affected to virtue.
how shall we escape, if we neglect that salutary doctrine? which was first published by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by those that heard him;
for both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all deriv'd from one: for which cause he is not asham'd to call them brethren, saying, "I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee." read more. and again, "I will put my trust in him." and again, "behold, I, and the children which God hath given me. Since then the children were made subject to a state of mortality, so he himself likewise was subject to the same condition: that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and deliver them who thro' fear of death were all their life-time in a state of slavery. for he is not the deliverer of angels; but the deliverer of Abraham's posterity. whence it was necessary he should be in all things like his brethren; that he might be a merciful high priest, and faithfully discharge the divine office of expiating the sins of the people. for having himself stood the test of sufferings, he is capable of being moved to relieve those who undergo such tryals.
not an high priest who is incapable of compassionating our miseries; since he was exposed to the same trials as we are, sin only excepted. let
For it is impossible for those who were once enlightned, and have received the heavenly gifts, communicated by the holy spirit, and have known by experience the truth of the divine promises, and the miracles of the age that was to come; it is impossible, read more. if they shall fall away, to re-instate themselves by repentance: seeing, as far in them lies, they crucify the son of God afresh, and expose him to open shame. for the earth which drinks up the frequent show'rs that fall upon it, and produces plants fit for the use of him that cultivates it, is stiled heavenly land: but that which bears thorns and briars, is look'd upon as lying under a curse; whose end will be to be burnt.
there was the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant gilded all over with gold, wherein was the golden urn containing the manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the alliance.
by a new and living way which he has first open'd for us, thro' the veil, that is, thro' his flesh;
for if we wilfully apostatize, after having received the knowledge of the truth, it is as a sin for which there is no sacrifice appointed.
Call to remembrance the former times, in which after ye were illuminated, you were forc'd to struggle with sufferings, some of you being expos'd to publick obloquy and persecution: whilst others had their share of affliction in seeing such treatment. read more. for you were passionately affected for those who were in bonds, and were pleas'd at the seizing of your goods, knowing that you have what is more excellent and lasting.
but don't forget to be beneficent to the community; for such sacrifice is acceptable to God.
James a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the TWELVE TRIBES dispers'd thro' the world, sends greeting.
'tis he that has voluntarily renew'd us by the oracles of truth, that we might be the first converts of the new creation.
pure and unadulterated religion, in the eye of God our father, consists in taking care of orphans and widows in their distress: and in keeping clear of the vices of the age.
Do you on your part employ all your care in adding to your faith, fortitude: to fortitude, knowledge:
Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Messiah, is born of God: and every one that loves the father, will likewise be affected with love to his son.
he that hath an ear, let him hear what the spirit saith unto the churches: to him that overcometh, will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man understands, except he that receives it."
him that overcomes, will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out no more: I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which descends from heaven from my God: even my new name will I write.
and they sung a new song, saying, "thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every tribe, and language, and people, and nation;
they shall see his face; and his name shall be. in their foreheads.
I John saw these things, and heard them. and when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel, who shewed me these things. but he said to me, "forbear, I am the servant of God, as you are, and your brethren the prophets, and those who observe the words of this book: worship God."